HTTP the client pulls information from the

HTTP is the protocol to exchange or

this hypertext.

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HTTP was developed by Tim Berners -Lee
at CERN in

1989. Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) and World Wide

Web Consortium (W3C) coordinated the
standard development

of HTTP.

The first version of HTTP i.e.
HTTP/0.9 was a simple

protocol for raw data transfer across
the Internet. HTTP/1.0

is the improved version which allows
the messages to be

in the format of (Multipurpose
Internet Mail Extensions)

MIME-like messages, contains Meta
information about the

data transferred and modifiers on
request/response semantics.

Conversely, HTTP/1.0 doesnt
significantly take into account

the effects of hierarchical proxies,
caching, virtual hosts or

the need for persistent connections.
Further HTTP/1.1 includes

more stringent requirements than
HTTP/1.0 to ensure reliable

implementation of its features. It
rises on the discipline of

reference by Uniform Resource
Identifier (URI), as a name

(URN) and as a Location (URL) for
stipulating the resource

for which the method is to be applied.
Messages are passed in

the format defined by Multipurpose
Internet Mail Extensions

(MIME) which is similar to that used
by the Internet Mail.

The port on which HTTP runs is 80 but
other ports can also

be used for it.

It is a standardized way through which
computers can

communicate with each other. HTTP
specification enumerates

how clients request data will be
shaped and sent to the server

and how server will respond to these
requests. Thus, it is

anasymmetric request-response client-server protocol. Here,

HTTP client sends a request message to
HTTP server. The

server, in turn, returns a response
message. Thus,it can be

said that HTTP is a pull protocol, the client pulls information

from the server. 1

Fig. 1. Client-Server Architecture


The three fundamental features of HTTP
making it a powerful

protocol are-

_ HTTP is media

HTTP can be used to send any type of
media content as

long as the server and client can
handle the data content.

Client and Server are required to
mention the content

type using appropriate MIME-type.

_ HTTP is

HTTP Client i.e. any browser initiates
a request and as

soon as the request is made, it
disconnects from the

server and waits for the response from
the server. Then,

the server processes the request and
re-establishes the

connection with the client and sends
the appropriate

response back to the client.

_ HTTP is

HTTP is connectionless and so the
client and the server

are aware of each other only during
the current request.

As soon as the request is served both
of them become

unaware of each other. Due to this
nature of HTTP,

the client and server cannot retain
information about

different requests across the

HTTP protocol works like a combination
of FTP and SMTP. It

transfers files and uses the service
of TCP hence it is similar

to FTP. It uses only one TCP
connection hence it is much

simpler than FTP. There is no separate
control connection,

only the data is transferred between
the client and server.

A. HTTP Architecture

HTTP is based on client/server
architecture where web

browsers act like HTTP client and Web
Server act as servers.

HTTP Client- The job of the client is
to send the request

made by the end-users to the server in
the form of the request

method, URI, and protocol version,
followed by a MIME- like

message containing request modifiers,
client information and

body-content over a TCP/IP connection.

Fig. 2. HTTP-Communication Sequence

HTTP Server- As soon as the server
receives the request, its

serves the request and respond with a
status-line including the

messages protocol version and success
or error code, followed

by a MIME-like message containing
entity meta information,

server information and body content.


_ A comprehensive
addressing scheme :-

The HTTP protocol uses the concept of

provided by the Universal Resource
Identifier (URI) as

a location (URL) or name (URN), for
indicating the

resource on which a method is to be applied

is also used for communication between
user agents and

various gateways, allowing hypermedia
access to existing

Internet protocols like SMTP, NNTP,
FTP, Gopher, and

WAIS. HTTP/1.0 is designed to allow

with such gateways, via proxy servers,
without any loss

of the data conveyed by those earlier

_ Client-Server

The HTTP protocol is based on a

paradigm. The communication generally
takes place

over a TCP/IP connection on the
Internet. The default

port is 80, but other ports can be
used. This does not

preclude the HTTP/1.0 protocol from
being implemented

on top of any other protocol on the
Internet, so long as

reliability can be guaranteed.

_ An extensible and
open representation for data types

(MIME Types):-

HTTP uses Internet Media Types
(formerly referred to

as MIME Content-Types) to provide open
and extensible

data typing and type negotiation. For
mail applications,

where there is no type negotiation
between sender and

receiver, it?s reasonable to put
strict limits on the set

of allowed media types. With HTTP,
where the sender

and recipient can communicate
directly, applications are

allowed more freedom in the use of
non-registered types.

The current version of the protocol is
HTTP/1.1, which

adds a few extra features to the
previous 1.0 version.

The most important of these, in my
opinion, includes

persistent connections, chunked
transfer-coding and finegrained

caching headers. We’ll briefly touch
upon these

features in this article; in-depth
coverage will be provided

in part two.


HTTP makes use of < major>.
numbering pattern

to indicate versions of the protocol.
HTTP-Version field

indicates version of the HTTP message
in the first line. HTTP

version number is specified using the
following general syntax-

HTTP-Version = “HTTP” “/” 1*DIGIT
“.” 1*DIGIT

Here the major and minor numbers
should be treated

as separate integers and they may be
incremented higher

than a single digit. Hence, HTTP/2.4
is lower version than

HTTP/2.13, which is further lower than


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