Historical BackgroundOver the years Florence has been home to many churches, public buildings and houses constructed in a Romanesque style or of a gothic architecture. Typically being in the style of Italian Goth, the cathedral of Florence dedicated to “Santa Maria del Fiore” (Fine Art America, 2018)The Major church in the Renaissance period was ‘Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore but as being built in the fourteenth century originating back to the middle ages, Italian cities competed to go forth and build bigger and better cathedral. The larger the buildings the greater they seemed. Created by the eyes of artist Arnolfo Di Cambio (1245-1302). After classical styles became ever so popular new edifices within the classical style were then built among or added to stylised buildings of an older tradition. As approved, in 1294 the construction of the cathedral went ahead after it was approved and selected. Arnolfo di Cambio was in the design of a Gothic Italian era as a basilica with three naves and an enormous octagonal dome. In his plans Di Cambio had a vision to build a dome of unseen, gargantuan size but as time went along this was increased by size. In 1418, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi had received a commission to go forth with the dome. Midst 1420 – 1436 construction of dome were put forth by the brilliant innovations and great multitude to overcome diversity and achieve new heights behind structural engineering, which did not surpass in the years to follow. The project was left undone, as the only frame had been erected on the polygonal base of the dome in 1421. Architects Lorenzo Ghiberti (1368-1445) and Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) took the win of the competition even though it had been the latter who actually built the dome. External Features Cathedral in the plan has a form of Latin cross. It is 153 metre long and 90 metre wide at the crossing. Florence Cathedral is the largest building in medieval Europe, it can contain up to 30000 people. Pushing the limits the construction technically was being unsurpassed in many ways. Being so ambitious a completely new approach was then invented for the departure of Gothic stylistic beginnings of this Renaissance architecture. In a way it belongs completely to the gothic era but the dome doesn’t being from a forerunner of Renaissance style.(Thehistoryhub.com, 2018)Shockingly the one part of the cathedral undeniably popular to no surprise it its dome. Looking huge in accordance to other cathedrals and the biggest one at that in the world up till 1881, it’s diameter being 45.52 metres with a height of 90 metres. To this day it is still counted as the largest masonry dome of the world. (Commons.wikimedia.org, 2018)For a mighty building and all of it’s polychrome exterior it is seen as highly unusual, in fact a variety of marbles had been used on it. White marble was taken from Carrara along side green ranging from Prato mixed with red taken from Sienna. To create decoration a uniform was assembled using it exists facades of that Baptistery and Giotto’s Campanile, which formed a single ensemble out of the two outrageous buildings. (Our Escapades, 2018)Staying undeniably true to the church’s gothic and medieval evolutionary stylistic ways although being built in the 1800s the façade exaggerated great detail by laying Tuscan marble harmoniously with Giotto’s tower. Intricate and flow brought by statues, colours meaning to amplify basic principle complimenting the art of Florentine which was perceived as “rectitude and beauty”. Even the entrance of the building was using exaggerated frames with a huge rosette window geometrically tying the strong lines around it together. To really put a finishing touch on it though were the four other replicas of that sitting in each corner of what is an outline of a square. The doors then had a memoir of Mary’s side by side in relief with bronze doors(Sharingtravelmemories.com, 2018)Interior FeaturesTypically to your eye you’re used to having a hint of knowledge of what the interior of a building may hold. No alterations, keeping character and almost the very stone that were there to start with, but to your and I surprise it wasn’t quite that. As the exuberance of the façade brought sobriety and restoration with grand archways soaring high with pillars made of stone. Furnished and polished it is a striking sight stoked in richly and patterned walls. This oozes to relate somehow with the mass of structure to a much tinier scale. Indifferently the phrase “don’t judge a book by it’s cover” is in fact in many ways the opposite if someone where to say this about the inside making it austere. From the 14th and 15th century we see forty four counts of stained glass windows illustrated by yours truly Donatello, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Paolo Uccello and Andrea del Castagno. Inspiration and in comparison we see the monochrome frescoes work of the likes of “Funerary Monument to Sir John Hawkwood” and “Equestrian statue of Niccolo da Tolentino” in similarity to the marble stone design. (Museumsinflorence.com, 2018)Enriching colours and paved marble in a range of colours and niches on the temple walls belong to a much later period but under the patronage of the 16th century of grand dukes. On the original plans to go forward with a timber truss roof they then changed it in the mid 1300’s to ribbed groin vault. They also wanted flying buttresses but had to scrap those too. Notably one of the key features the church was very open to were the size of the bays being quite bigger than those in Gothic churches constructed in the 13th century. Being much more open this church had it’s nave and side aisles visually aligning and to some degree shallow. Prominent moulding above arches put large empathy on the horizontal element(Pinterest, 2018)The floor finishes in the cathedral is mostly a mosaic and is made of marble. Much of the floor has geometric patterns. The baptismal font is octagonal and was placed in the Baptistery in 1658, but is believed to be much older. So to end with in comparison, this is something typically expected from the Italians. Their tastes differ from those of originals in the likes of Germany or France where traditional styles like gothic cathedrals would’ve been built to emphasis their vertical elements. In conclusion semi circles are the symbol of hope, continuity and the strive of civilians gothic churches were more symbolic as cult, union and tendencies to withdraw certain characteristics. References Fine Art America. (2018). Florence Cathedral And Brunelleschi’s Dome by Melany Sarafis. online Available at: https://fineartamerica.com/featured/1-florence-cathedral-and-brunelleschis-dome-melany-sarafis.html Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.Our Escapades. (2018). Facts about Florence Cathedral, Baptistery, Giotto’s Campanile – Our Escapades. online Available at: http://ourescapades.com/2013/05/facts-about-florence-cathedral-baptistery-giottos-campanile/ Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.Thehistoryhub.com. (2018). Florence Cathedral Historical Facts and Pictures | The History Hub. online Available at: https://www.thehistoryhub.com/florence-cathedral-facts-pictures.htm Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.Rogers, W. (2018). Exploring Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral: A Visitor’s Guide | PlanetWare. online Planetware.com. Available at: http://www.planetware.com/florence/cathedral-of-santa-maria-del-fiore-i-to-fd.htm Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.Commons.wikimedia.org. (2018). File:The dome of Florence Cathedral.jpg – Wikimedia Commons. online Available at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_dome_of_Florence_Cathedral.jpg Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.Museumsinflorence.com. (2018). Cathedral of Florence. online Available at: http://www.museumsinflorence.com/musei/cathedral_of_florence.html Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.Pinterest. (2018). Places I’ve been. online Available at: https://www.pinterest.ie/pin/36028865738768157/ Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.Sharingtravelmemories.com. (2018). Florence (Part Two). online Available at: https://sharingtravelmemories.com/florence-part-two/ Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.ItalianRenaissance.org. (2018). Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore – ItalianRenaissance.org. online Available at: http://www.italianrenaissance.org/cathedral-of-santa-maria-del-fiore-in-florence/ Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.Archinomy.com. (2018). Florence Cathedral | Archinomy. online Available at: http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/946/florence-cathedral Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.Courses.marlboro.edu. (2018). Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. online Available at: https://courses.marlboro.edu/file.php/2783/Florence_Cathedral-The_Design_Stage.pdf Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Florence Cathedral. online Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Cathedral Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.Commons, W., Commons, W., Commons, Commons, W., Commons and Commons (2018). Florence Cathedral – Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore | Wondermondo. online Wondermondo.com. Available at: http://www.wondermondo.com/Countries/E/IT/Tuscany/FlorenceCathedral.htm Accessed 22 Jan. 2018.