Ethnic Thailand and form it into Pattani as

Ethnic conflicts and insurgencies in the southern
region is a result of social political injustice and economy dominance by the
Thai’s. And due to this, the Malay Muslim decided to set up their own ethnic
group or organizations in order to develop the community and in the process,
deepening their ethnic identity. These organizations later grow into separatist
groups that protest against the Thailand government (Taya, 2014).

As said by Chalk (2008), major separatist groups in Southern
Thailand that are usually linked to insurgencies there are Barisan Revolusi
Nasional, Patani United Liberation Organization (PULO) and Bersatu. Despite the
difference in their organizations management and stance, these three separatist
groups share the same motivation that is; independence for the three regions
including some part of Songkla to be centralized under Patani. In pursuit of
this objective and simultaneously to cause fear among the Thai people that
resides in the area , all three groups are involved in violence that are
categorized as low-intensity conflict including ambushes, kidnappings,
sabotage, extortions and bombings. They hoped from doing this they will be able
to pressure the central government to comply with the political demands of
Malay-Muslim that want a separation for the three states in the southern region
from Thailand. According to Chalk (2008), Barisan Revolusi Nasional was
established by Ustaz Haji Abdul Karim Hassan in 1960. The reason for the
establishment of this group is to object against the Thai government that want
to reform the education program of Islamic boarding school or pondok in Pattani to add a secular
curriculum in their studies. Objectives of this group are to free the southern
Muslim provinces from Thailand and form it into Pattani as a sovereign state.
And secondly, to incorporate this objective into a bigger framework which is;
combining the whole Southeast Asia and create a Malay-Muslim socialist nation. Because
of their radical ideologies, BRN become known as the biggest threat to law and
order and the Thai authority in the 1990s. Patani United Liberation Organization
PULO was formed in 1968 by Tengku Bira or also known as Kabir Abdul Rahman. He forms
this group to address the issue of the limited and incompetent environment of
the established Malay community in Pattani. PULO engage in nonviolent and
violent action. Their approach is by improving the education level among the Malay
population in the deep south area in addition to carrying out numerous legendary
attacks against Thai institutions like schools, local government officials, as
well as the teachers, administrators, and Buddhist settlers (Chalk, 2008). For
this reason, Pattani United Liberation Organisation (PULO) is one of the most
active insurgent groups in the south (Rajakumar, 2016). 

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