Education such a way so that they become

Education is the most important asset for Pakistan but education system of Pakistan especially coeducation is suffering from many socio-cultural constraining factors. These challenges range from norms, beliefs, cast system and religion in which people do not want to take admission their girls at co-education institutions. while some social barrier like lack of infrastructure to deficiency of qualified staff. Other challenges include underinvestment in education sector, lack of accountability, lack of potential for resource mobilization and high dropout rates of students from Pakistan. Other important factor is teachers and students’ absenteeism that is the major hurdle in provision of quality education. There are some other resisting factors in the process of development in education sector of Pakistan. They include lack of availability and accessibility of low cost and high-quality education, absence of formal criterion for funds allocation at school level, weak policy framework of the government, gender discrimination, rural urban gap, teachers’ absenteeism, inadequate attention of teachers to every student and lack of teachers’ availability.There are many barriers related with girls’ education that mostly include various rigid cultural factors such as patriarchal structure of the society, stereotypic behavior related with girls’ education and prejudices about girls’ education. Other factors are related with security issues for the girls like poor roads, limited transportation, unsafe travelling and restricted movement of girls to education sector. These factors limited the access of girls to education sector. Girls are also socialized in such a way so that they become modest and submissive. Therefore, they are not allowed to take part in the decision-making process. This factor limited the access of girls to education sector. Thus, on the demand side poverty, low parental education, gender discrimination, security concerns for the girls and long distance of schools are the major barriers. But on the supply side shortage of girls’ schools, poor quality teachers, teachers’ absenteeism, weak curriculum and low-quality education are the major obstacles to girls’ education. These factors contribute to lower the literacy rate of girls (Qureshi, 2004).There are many sociocultural barriers in coeducation sector that hinders the process of development and they include three major areas: 1) Household/Community level barriers that include direct cost of schooling (e.g. school fees, school uniforms, school shoes and school books) and indirect cost of schooling (e.g. traditional, cultural and religious beliefs; gender stereotypes associated with girls’ education, lack of knowledge on benefits of education and gender differences). Health related issues include poor nutrition, various diseases, malnourishment, situations of crises and instability. 2) School level barriers include no school close to home, poor quality environment e.g. poor condition of buildings, overcrowded classes, lack of portable water availability, poor sanitation system as well as physical and psychological violence. Other resisting factors include various aspects of curriculum weakness (that includes outdated curriculum, biased curriculum and inappropriate contents in curriculum), poor quality learning process, poor trained teachers, lack of assessment, outdated teaching methods, poor school management, health related issues as well as conflict and instability. 3) Policy level barriers include inadequate legal framework in such areas as compulsory education, child labor, reentry into school, lack of enforcement of existing laws and policies relating to many things e.g. corporal punishment, child labor, school fees, insufficient national budgetary allocations to primary and secondary education, segregation of education from existing national frameworks, transition to next stage of education, lack of political will, political turnover of the government and negative political intervention in education sector (Noorani, 2009).Need for the projectNeed for the study is to examine the sociocultural obstructions on coeducation system. The socio-cultural obstructions included the norms, beliefs, traditions and cast system etc. This study combines all those barriers that are of social, cultural, political and economic in nature. The researcher feels that all the social, cultural, political and economic barriers are directly impact the coeducation especially the Islamic country of Pakistan. And females are the most effected individuals from these terms. So, study is to design to see the impact of sociocultural on coeducation. This study is to make the help for policy maker to modify the policies according to the impact of sociocultural on coeducation as derived by the researcher. This study is also helpful for the learners both male and female, especially for those persons who read in coeducation system.ObjectivesGeneral objectiveTo examine the study of the socio-cultural obstructions to co-education at higher secondary level academic institutes in Punjab, PakistanSpecific objectivesTo find out the demographic characteristics of the respondents.To find out the sociocultural factors which obstructed the coeducation system.To determine the impact of sociocultural factors on male and female in coeducation. To compare the views of male and female students of coeducation.To suggest the recommendations for quality assurance of both programs.V. Review of LiteratureAddy (2008) concluded that there are many supply and demand side barriers that have the momentous impact on coeducation sector. These barriers incorporate various socio-cultural and economic factors such as inclination of boys’ education over girls’ education, poverty, gender discrimination, rigid social and cultural values. Norms and traditions of rural living people was not allowed to read the girls at co-education system. Religion is another factor which hindered the girls and boys to read at the same institution.UNESCO (2006) concluded that negative attitudes in the form of social discrimination can leads to serious educational barriers. Despite that lack of awareness and traditional prejudices are also the major social constraints that hamper the process of development in education sector of Pakistan. Other major barrier is the attitude and belief of the community that educating the disabled is futile. Rehman (2005) concluded that there are many factors that include cultural doctrines and tribal codes that produce a conservative environment for girls’ education, gender discrimination, low teacher’ quality, inadequate teachers training, curriculum weakness and inappropriate textbooks development. Other constraining factors include lack of basic resources required (such as buildings, furniture, drinking water, instructional materials and qualified teachers), underinvestment in education sector, rapid population growth, poverty, ill health of students, rigid socio-cultural practices, low enrollment demands, lack of new school buildings and inappropriate curriculum in both scope and sequence as well as it is extraneous and inappropriate.Watkins (2000) concluded that there are some barriers that deprive the male and female at co-education institution. The most important feature is poverty that operates both at micro level and macro level. At the micro level poverty in households deprive the students from schooling while at the macro level poverty confines the government spending in education sector. Direct cost of schooling is also the foremost barrier in the development of education sector and this can be divided into two categories. The first category includes the official fees and the second category includes the extensive range of factors like household budgets, cost of textbooks, school uniforms and school fees. Other barriers are lack of government obligation to education sector, inadequate allocation of resources to primary education, shifting resources between public and private sectors, inadequate resource mobilization and misplaced budget priorities.Tampon & Fort (2008) concluded that women suffer gender discrimination as a consequence of the prevailing socio-cultural climate in Pakistan (Sen, 2001) There is significant variety in the status of women across classes, regions, and the rural/urban divide due to uneven socio-economic development and the influence of tribal, feudal, religious and social formations on women’s lives. However, the women’s situation versus that of the men’s is one of general subordination, determined by the forces of patriarchy across classes, regions, and the rural/urban divide. The country has generally a male dominating society, and commonly adopts a hostile attitude towards women. According to The World Bank (1999) Country Gender Profile of Pakistan, the status of women in Pakistan is the lowest in the world. Gender inequality in Pakistani higher education is a consequence of persistent discrimination prevailing through the education system from an early age. Girls lag behind boys in the provision of education and in the access to schooling available. There are a number of explanations for this gender-biased criterion of resource allocation.Aly (2007) concluded that globalization creates a lot of easiness and challenges to cope with the modern world in terms of knowledge and skill acquisition. There are many social evils in the developing countries like corruption, employment, low earnings, inflation, exploitation, rapid population growth and political instability. South Asian countries have literacy rate of 43% and the foremost indicators that determine education are sky-scraping. These indicators include literacy rate especially for females at co-education level, participation rate at the primary level and secondary level, survival rate for students, poor quality learning, ghost schools, teachers’ absenteeism, poor governance and weak administrative structures. These barriers cause diminutive participation of people at the social, economic and political level.

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