During dioxide. in COPD there maybe a breakdown

During inspiration, the bronchioles open,  allowing as to flow into the alveoli. during expiration the brnchioles narrow the alveolar collapse, and air is trapped. With this air trapping, hyperinflation and distension of the alveolar occurs and impairs the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. in COPD there maybe a breakdown of elastin, a protien in the connective tissue of the lungs. this connective tissue breakdown leads to destruction of the alveolar walls with airway obstruction, mucus accumulation in the inflamed bronchioles, air trapping in the in the alveoli as the alveolar walls collapse, and narrowing of the bronchioles. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARYDISEASE                                                          2                       Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a phrase used to discuss ongoing lung diseases including chronic bronchitis, emphysema, refractory asthma, etc. (Kleinschmidt, P. 2014, June 06)  This condition is distinguished by increasing breathlessness. Some of  the warning of COPD can be  sputum making also immedicable cough,  and awful life threatening breathing situations. in particular individuals, chronic cough an sputum production are the first signs that they are at chance for developingthe airflow obstruction and shortness of breath that is trait of this disease. in others, shortness of breath could be the main suggestion of thisproblem.  According to the World Health Organization, COPD was the main cause of death worldwide in 2006. Also millions people pass away from this condition in countries as diverse as different continentals in the world. ( Jørgen Vestbo, J. (2013, February 15)                Cigarette smoking is, by far, the most important risk factor for COPD. pipes, cigar, and other class of cigarette use and indirect disclosure to smoke are also risk factors. further risk factors for COPD that have been pinpointed include, vulnerability to industrial pollutions and recurrent lung sickness, airway hyperresponsivenes, and socioeconomic factors.      COPD is distinctive by a chronic inflammatory response throughout the airway, lung tissues, and pulmonary vasculature. with this chronic inflammatory response, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and neutrophils are increased in various parts of the lung. The inflammatory process of COPD lead to repeated cycles of injury and repair of the airway wall. The repair     CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE                                                        3 process results in structural remodeling of the airway wall with increasing collagen content and scar tissue formation, which narrows the lumen and produces fixed airway obstruction.         Regardless of the lung disease predominating in the patient with COPD, the end result is that progressive airflowobstruction leads to a chronic ventilation perfusion mismatch with blood flowing past the unaerated lung, resulting in hypoxia. Depending on the lung disease present, various symptoms including barrel chest, cyanosis, and clubbing may occur. (Mosenifar, Z. 2014, October 30)            Several classes of medications are used to decrease symptoms and complications of COPD, although they have not been shown to modify the long-term decline in lung function of such patients. Medications commonly used include beta-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics, corticosteroids, methylxanthines, and a combination of one or more of these drugs. (NHLB,2017) Bronchodilators are the main pharmacotherapy for COPD. They relieve bronchospasm, reduce airway obstruction, and improve alveolar ventilation. Oxygen delivery isactually considered a prescription therapy and is to be administered with great caution. In advanced COPD, oxygen therapy for more than 15 hours per day has been shown to improve the patient’s quality of life and survival.           the patient with COPD requires considerable patient and family teaching. patients do well in a climate with low shifts in cold or heat, and no extremes of any weather conditions. (Algusti, A. G. 2017, April).  The patient and family can be taught to avoid environmental and occupational irritants, how to use respiratory devices, and how to correctly use oxygen delivery systems. In addition, the patient can be instructed to have good nutrition and avoid excess weight gain or loss and to avoid substances, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drugs. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE                                                           4 My patient has a history of COPD, due to long term smoking, for many years. For treatment my patient is taking albuterol 2.5 mg and ipratropium bromide. during discharge the patient and family are educated on smoking cessation and management and treatments for COPD.                                                             Summary COPD may not be able to completely reversible and it is increase in restrictions in breath intakes.  that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is associated with an inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious gases. There are many causes and smoking is the primary cause. As a health care worker we should be able to teach the family and the patients on how to care a  patient with this condition, how to manage and the importance of not smoking. undefinedundefined undefined undefined undefined undefined undefined undefined undefined undefined undefined undefined undefined undefinedundefined undefined undefined undefined

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