Dilated and dysfunctional 1,2. DCM is a particular

Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of myocardium
characterized by Left
Ventricular (LV)
chamber enlargement and impaired contractile. The Right Ventricle
(RV) may additionally be enlarged and dysfunctional 1,2. DCM is a particular clinical
condition as the leading worldwide cause for heart transplantation 3. DCM can arise from either genetic or non-genetic causes.

It seems that about 30% to 50% of DCM cases show familial recurrence (³ 2 affected in family) and attributable to genetic components
4. The estimated prevalence of DCM is 1:250.

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However, this estimate may vary
upon the geographic and ethnic origins as well as the diagnostic criteria 5 and may be gradually increasing over
time along with progressive improvement in systematic clinical screening
procedures 4. Numerous genes have been identified for hereditary
DCM; each of these genes encodes a variety of different types of cardiomyocyte
proteins, including sarcomeric, cytoskeletal, calcium channel regulators,
transcription factors, RNA-binding proteins, and others (Table 1) 3,4,6 , however
the
causative gene underlying the pathogenesis of ?60% of familial cases with
DCM was not identified 3,4. This obvious gap has encouraged ongoing studies
to identify more DCM candidate genes. Recent advances in the
identification of disease–gene associations in DCM categorized at least 47 new
genes for DCM documented in the Human Gene Mutation Database (http://www.hgmd.cf.ac.uk/ac/index.php ) 3. One
such novel gene recently introduced for DCM is FLNC. It is predominantly
expressed in striated muscle where is clearly indicated its fundamental role in
association with myofibrillar myopathies (MFM; MIM#609524) 7.

Because of cardiac involvement features in some of patients with MFM, this gene
was included in genetic screening tests for inherited cardiomyopathies and
sudden death since 2012 8. Next-generation
sequencing (NGS) techniques accelerate screening of the cardiomyopathy related
genes in particularly familial cases with the condition

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