Data organisation has but it has not been

is raw facts and figures that an organisation has but it has not been processed
yet. “Data is figures without any added interpretation” (SearchDataManagement, 2017). This means
that the data has figures but it has not been analysed or organised in any way.
 Business organisations deal with a lot
of data that they get of their customers or other organisation partners. Data
is the record of something. For example, organisations will have record of
their customers including what they have bought recently and address that the
item has been shipped to.

Every organisation
has a Management Information Systems officer that deals with the information
systems. The MIS officer has to enter data into a computer system. The data
that the MIS officer puts in a system has to be correct. Data then is stored on
the system. Then, this data might need to be summarised and included just the
main information so it can be helpful and meet the needs of other members of
staff within the organisation that will ask to use it. Also, any data that
comes from outside of the organisation needs to be input accurately when
receiving it from outside like other organisations. Data can be improved for
better organisational performance, when the staff make sure that data is accurate
because other members of staff have to know the right information. If there is
poor data, it will lead to poor results because data is passed onto different
departments of an organisation and if it is wrong, for example about a customer
it will become useless.

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There are two sources
of data, internal and external organisation data. Internal data is data that is
within the organisation, which includes information about the organisation’s
customers, products that they have the transportation of products to customers.
External organisation data includes data from outside the organisation. For
example, it can be information from social media, other organisations,
suppliers, government. 


There is three types
of data. They are structured, semi structured and unstructured data.

data is information that comes prepared, and it has already been planned. When
someone within an organisation looks for structured data, they can easily find
it because the computers can simply find the data. “Structured data is defined
before it is collected”. (Faraj, I, 2017). This means that the data structured
data has to be already clear and distinct before someone takes it and passes it
on. When structured data is collected, staff already knows what this data shows
and the way it will be kept. For example, structured data can be names, date
and time, numbers. To keep this data, organisations will have to pay its cost
so they can keep it and analyse it. For example, an organisation will get
structured data when a customer creates an account with the organisation and he
has to fill in all of his details so he can order a product. The details will
include names, address, and date of birth. “Structured data gives names to each
field in a database and defines the relationships between the fields”. (Walker,


data is data that can’t be included into a database that has already been
created. It uses human language, which means that you can write anything you
want. As it contains human language, it is expensive to analyse, because a
person will be needed to analyse it. For example, unstructured data can be
emails, presentations, blogs, photos and audio files. Unstructured data can
have images, videos and images. “Unstructured data is usually not stored in a
relational database where the data model is relevant to the meaning of the

data is data that contains both structured and unstructured data.

“Describes structured data that does not
quite fit into the formal
structure of data models”. (Faraj, I, 2017). Semi structured data can be found
in emails that remain of structured and unstructured components. Semi
structured data can be included in images and videos. An example of
semi-structured data can be a Wikipedia article because it includes structured
data that is prepared and planned and also unstructured data.


is data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection.

“meaning” can be useful, but does not have to be. In computer
parlance, a relational database makes information from the data stored within
it.” (,

is data that has been interpreted and has a meaning. Businesses use valuable
information that helps them within the organisation. Valuable information is
accessible, which means that it can be accessed by authorised users within the
organisation. For example, this can include staff that can access customer
information. In the organisation, every department will have a different level
of access to information because everyone does a different job and will be able
to see only the appropriate information that relates to them.

is accurate which means that it doesn’t have any errors and it has been checked
by staff to make sure that it is correct. This is very important for an
organisation because for example if they have inputted wrong information about
their customer, and then he decides to order a product, then the product can go
to the wrong place.

is complete and has all the important facts. This is beneficial when
organisations access information because if it is incomplete, they won’t be
able to identify the information and wrong decisions will be made. Also
information has to be economical to create, relevant because decisions depend
on the quality of data that the organisation has. And reliable to the staff and
any users can trust it to use because they might need to pass it on. It is very
important that information is secured and safe from access from unauthorised
users. For example to access information, organisation will usually give out
username and passwords to their staff so they can log in and view the
information. This makes it secure because anyone from outside the organisation
can’t access it and this prevents it from being stolen. Information should be
timely because staff and customers need time to process it. For example if an
organisation is selling tickets of events, they will have to make sure that
they arrive on time and to the correct address of the customer so he can visit
the event and be satisfied with the service. Valuable information needs to be
verified, which includes of it being checked.





information, and skills acquired through experience or education; the
theoretical or practical understanding of a subject” (Dr Oliver Kayas, 2017)

is information that has been experienced by the user and he has actually saw it
in real life or has had experience with it and understood what it means. Knowledge
contains information, but has the experience and understanding in the
information. Knowledge can benefit an organisation because when staff have more
knowledge, they will know how to deal better with situations that they have
experienced before.  

and Tacit are the two types of knowledge. “Tacit knowledge
is often context dependent and personal in nature. It is hard to communicate
and deeply rooted in action, commitment, and involvement” (Nonaka, 1994). Tacit knowledge is personal and
has a specific content that is hard to share to other users. Tacit knowledge is
in people and the things that they practise, whether they have had experience,
commitment, or competence. This means that it is personal and it is difficult
to explain to anyone or share it. Tacit knowledge has a lot of experience but
it is hard to define and depends on its context. It is the most valuable source
of knowledge and helps organisations. However, tacit knowledge finds impossible
in codification that means that an IT system will not be able to run on it.   

“This type of knowledge is
formalized and codified, and is sometimes referred to as know-what” (Brown
& Duguid 1998).
Explicit knowledge
is codified knowledge that is found in documents and databases. It is essential
for transfer and storage, which makes it easy to share.

users can collect and organise explicit knowledge and transfer it through
digital devices only. For example, explicit knowledge ca be information,
records, files and documents, which can help an organisation, for example, when
they will keep customer information and records in files and they will be
making different documents for different types of customers.


“TalkTalk is the UK’s leading value for money
consumer and B2B telecoms provider. Our mission is to deliver affordable,
reliable, simple and fair services for everyone.” (About us,2017)

is a B2B telecom provider for customers. They provide broadband, fibre,
landline, TV and mobile services in the UK with a good value and deals for
money, having one of the lowest prices in the UK. TalkTalk is an organisation
that deal with a lot of data manipulation. They have many customers and that
sign up and want a different service every day. Therefore, TalkTalk collect
information from their customers using different forms where each customer will
have to fill in his personal details and the service that they want done. With
this information, they input it in their database and send a technician to the
customers’ house so they can get the service that they want done. After that,
TalkTalk will take the customers’ payment details and set up a direct debit and
a fixed price that the customer will have to pay for time of the contract that
they have signed. TalkTalk use customer information to offer their service to
more people in the area, to advertise it more and gain more customers.  TalkTalk collect information from people. It
is information that the organisation has collected first hand from someone. For
example, they have customer surveys to ask them questions with their
satisfaction of the service that they offer. This allows TalkTalk to mark the
quality of their products so potential future customers can know how satisfied
are past customers with their service. Furthermore, they keep this data and
analyse it.  Therefore, if the majority
of the customers have suggested an improvement, then TalkTalk would usually
make the improvement. Another way, that they collect data is when they have
interviews with potential employees that they will hire to work with. Usually,
at an interview, they will ask the potential employees many questions and they
will collect information about them.

improve their performance, TalkTalk would need operational, tactical and
strategic activities to expand their business. To make the business grow even
more, they can start monitoring their data and control the business in certain
areas and cities. This monitoring and controlling means that the organisation
can use information to make more profit and for example if they notice that
there is a high amount of people that want TalkTalk service, they can have more
technicians in that area rather than making them travel and make customers wait
longer. “Reward existing customers loyalty by giving them the same-best value
deals previously only available to new customers” (TalkTalk is changing, 2017). TalkTalk can interact
with their customers and reach them with online promotions and discounts.
In addition, this shows
that TalkTalk can use information and monitor the service that is making them
most profit and they can promote it more and have more special deals for the
new and existing customers. “TalkTalk Outage: Broadband
Internet service stops working – Technical issues now resolved” (,
2017). Recently
TalkTalk have been found to have problems with their broadband for their
customers. To improve their business, TalkTalk can improve their broadband
network quicker for customers, improve the speeds of it and start introducing
fibre optic network in some areas. 

Operational support is the use of information to assist
an organisation with its daily functions. TalkTalk can use operational support
to record the company around and see how it is functioning. Then this is
analysed and they can find methods to work better and function more
efficiently. For example, they can make sure that they update their customers’
data and make sure that they satisfy and answer all questions that customers
have so they can keep them satisfied.

and strategic activities to expand the business can be to try something new
like releasing something new for the company and make more profit from that.
Tactical activity can be to plan everything for the design of the new product.
Also doing the research for the new product is key and seeing the risks that
they might have when they release it. To make sure that their product is ready
for sale, they can invite customers or focus group that can have taster and
leave their opinion on the product.

to make TalkTalk even more profitable organisation, they can open offices in
big areas and cities because up to now, they don’t have a branch anywhere, and
they only have online or phone line connection with their customers.
Furthermore in the branches and online, they can start selling mobile phones
and offer contracts to people or deals and offers including their other
services like broadband or TV for home which can all satisfy the customer,
having one company for all of their needs. This is really going to put their
profit up.




















(2017). How to define data, information and knowledge. online Available at:  Accessed 3 Dec. 2017. Ihsan Faraj (2017) Information Systems. Manchester:
Manchester Metropolitan University. 30 page handout, distributed on 10th
October 2017 in lecture 3 for module “Introduction to Business Systems”. Walker, M. (2012). “Structured vs. Unstructured Data: The Rise of
Data Anarchy”. Data Science Central. Available at:, M. (2012). “Structured vs. Unstructured Data: The Rise of
Data Anarchy”. Data Science Central. Available at: Faraj (2017) Information Systems. Manchester:
Manchester Metropolitan University. 30 page handout, distributed on 10th
October 2017 in lecture 3 for module “Introduction to Business Systems”. (2017).
online  Available at: Accessed 11 Dec. 2017.Frost, A.
(2017) Types of Knowledge. Online
Accessed on 12 December 2017 Frost, A.
(2017) Types of Knowledge. Online
Accessed on 12 December 2017 About us. (2017) Online Accessed on 12
December 2017 (2017). TalkTalk Outage: Broadband
Internet service stops working – Technical issues now resolved. online
Available at:  Accessed 12 Dec. 2017. TalkTalk is changing. (2017) Online
Accessed on 12 December 2017


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