Classical conditioning is when a behavior is formed as a result of a stimuli being associated with a response. For example, if you saw a cockroach for the first time (visual stimuli), you flinch, that flinching could be your conditional learning. Classical conditioning is when a new behaviour response that is learnt from the stimuli. Operant Conditioning is a method for modifying behaviour through consequences for responding. The two categories of consequences are reinforcement and punishment which can each be divided into positive and negatives types. Positive reinforcement is the adding of something that will increase a behaviour, for example giving a dog a treat after performing a certain task. Negative reinforcement is subtracting something to increase a behaviour, for example taking an advil in order to get rid headache, which will mean you will be more likely to take the medicine again when you next have a headache. Social learning is when behavior and learning is based solely on the individual’s environment. It is their interactions with the people around them for example society. Social Learning Theory was developed by Bandura, and it involves four processes. The first one is attention which deals with observing the behaviour of others. The second one is Retention which means remembering this behaviour. The third one is reproduction which involves having the ability to reproduce this behaviour. The last process involves motivation which is rewards for doing the behaviour, punishments for not doing the behaviour. Milgram’s study showed that ordinary people will often inflict harm upon others if prompted by an authority figure. In Milgram’s case, the person in the lab coat telling the subject to administer the shocks. This study implies that authority figures can influence people to do things that they may find unethical. In the Stanford prison study Dr. Zimbardo took a group of males in Stanford University to take part in the study which was supposed to look at life in prison. The participants were then divided into two groups those being “prisoners” and “guards. Prisoners and guards were given uniforms and were told to take on their “roles”. Even though none of the participants were truly guards or prisoners, they took on all of the personality traits that are attributed to each role. This lead to the guards to abuse their power, giving the prisoners punishments including removing their mattresses or locking them in a cupboard with no light. The Prisoners started to feel depressed and obediently took the insults and beating received by the guards. It shows us that when an individual is given power they often misuse it. Similarly to the Milgram’s study the Stanford experiment showed the power of authority and how easily we can take on new roles. When individuals are in groups they are more likely to do things that they wouldn’t have otherwise done. One reason might be groupthink, which is a tendency for all the people in the group to have similar opinions in order to not have conflicts. Often in crowds people feel the need to follow gender roles and stereotypes in order to not stick out and become the odd one out. When alone, however, they feel free to become whoever they are because there is no fear to become judged for certain actions. Also one might make different decisions when alone because there is no one to influence the way one is thinking.