Chapter2 to men in human society. Feminism



The word ‘feminism’to
refer to an intense awareness of identity as a women and interest in

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Problems. The subjugation women is a central fact of history and it is the main

psychological disorders  in society.
Feminism is the social political movement for social ,legal

and cultural
freedom and equality  for human society.
Contemporary feminism began in the

18th century as
a social political equality  for women.
It asks why women have played a

role to men in human society. Feminism 
is a serious attempt to formulate the issue 

and find the
solution to gender problems.


The term ‘feminism ‘derives from French and its origin from the Latin

meaning women and there by advocacy of women’s write seeking  to remove the

discriminate against women. The term become popular as time teached to 20th

Century . The
interest in struggle to protect women from’othering’ reached high and
start  to

emancipation from thepatriarchal oppression . The political scope of feminism has

been broadened
by the impact of Marxist ideology that has mademade feministllenge

sexism along
with capitalism for both encourage  the
patriarchal set up. The feminist refers to

the person
who advocates Or practices feminism and it takes patriarchal position . Female

the matter of
biology and ‘feminine ‘ishe set of culturally defined characteristics.

Indian feminism
have also fought against cultural issueswith in the patriarchal  society , such as

laws and practice of widow immolation know as sati .  Unlike the western  feminist

, movement was
initiated by  men then joined by women.  Feminism relates has often focused

upon Feminism
relates to the belief that women  should
have the social, economic  and

rightas men. Feminism relates has often focused upon what is present . The  key

assumption  of feminist ideology is that gender roles are
pre- dominant women is trainedto fit

into those
rules In  MahadeviVarma’ s ” Art of
Living ” she encountered that ,

” Indian
women  continues to be  the sacrificing mother ,devoted wife

affectionate sister
and obedient daughter . While she knows all  

her sacrifice  , self – abnegation
and unselfish love ,remains  ignorant”

Hindu women
too is a lifeless corpse . The description shows the women have no

wave of feminism refers to an extend period of feminist during 19th
and 20th

century in U.
K  and US . originally, it focused on the
promotion of equal contact and property

rights  for women and Opposition to owner ship of
married  women and (their children ) by their

husband. However
by the end of 19th century ,it focused primarily on gaining
political power

,the rights of suffering women . Yet they were combing women as sexual

Second wave feminism relates to the historical context of patriarchy and
oppression and

Attacks the
male domination and aggressive and militant one . It refers to the period of

activity in
the early 1960s and lasting through the late 1980s . It was considered as a

of the  first wave feminism . While the
first wave focused on  sufferage , second

wave largely
concerned with their issues of equality such as the end in social
discrimination .

Carol Harish
coined the slogan ‘personal is political ;.with the synonym with the second


But we cannot
interept history in monolithic universal terms ignoring the difference In
culture .

M. S Nagaraj  said that ” feminism is multicultural and
diasporic . They needs  of women

who live in different
countries are dissimilar they are conditioned by several factors-

or racial ,economic and cultural and individual consciousness.


However ,the Third wave feminism ,embraces sees diversity and
change .

which began in 1990s arising as a responsesto the perceived failure of second wave.It emphasizes

on the
experience of middle class white women.The Third wave characterised but the

of  diverse groups of heterogeneous groups in the
fold of feminist thought.These heterogeneous

groups include
women of colour hesbian,bisexual,transgeudered women aboriginal women and

low income


    The fourth wave feminism is termed as post
-feminism and may be called post -feminism

which lays emphasis
on individual women’s inner freedom awakening. Ittries to resolvethe

issues and
problems raised by feminism and attempts to understand the relationship to

between men and women.The term post feminism has become an umbrella

term to cover
a variety of concepts .Besides the egalitarianrspectiues ,it covers the
concepts of

the ‘brave new
world’, girl power cyberspace, androgyny, pluralism and to a certain extent the

doctrine of
multiculturism.The ‘brave new world ‘ and the ‘girl power’ refer to the world of

women who are
bold, assertive and competitive and do not require the clutches of feminism to

search for
themmovement of 1960s,

The concept
of feminism has been controversialin lndia and otherDeveloping nations for a

number of reasons.
On the other hand, traditionalists argues it alienrecte  women from their

religion and family responsibilities, while some on the left see it as adiversions
from class

against western cultural and economic imperialism.     Ania Loomba drawn attention to

tendency in India to oversimplify ‘western feminism’  In India not in colour , but Loomba

indeed the work of woman of all colours that has articulate the relationships

gender ,
class, sexuality , race and culture.(1993,p 274).      However feminists in India are

chartised for being  influenced by western
modes of thought.


The historical reason for this resistance to feminism in India extend
well  back

century , when the ‘women question ‘ was a central issue in debates our reform
in India .

Enamoured of
their ‘civilizingmission’ , influentialBritish writers like James Mill

Indian religions
, regarding women. Indeed , a significant tool used by colonial ideology to

of the subject population was the question of status of women.


The movement not in uniform for reform of gender practices, but in
different places in

Different way
in different time . The main issues include sati (widow burning )female

marriage ,purdah (female seclusion) and restriction on female education .
Although sati 

outlawed  in1829 it has ever been full eradicated . Sahgal
also provides fictional narratives of

infanticide ,childmarriage and purdah in ‘MistakenIdentity'(1988)
. Rama Mehta also

shows in her
novel ‘Inside the Haveli’.


Essentially ,
the nationalist were divided between those who wished to reform gender ideology

in India
along western lines and those who sought to ‘revive’ a traditional culture ,

women as
emblem of indigenous religion and family.


India women
actually participate in life outside the home , in doing so they had the support

nationalist political leaders who saw the advantages of mobilizing women.
Gandhi , in

supported ‘non-violent struggle ‘ arguing they are by nature non-violent and have

great ability
to endure suffering . The opponents of women’s political struggle voiced number

of objection
. They warned of traditional gender roles should breakdown some based their

on the san city of religious belief and practices.


 While gender violence has been repeatedly
identified as a major problem in India. Other

feminist campaigns
have been each more contentious particularly the critique of the family and

challenge to
the image of the ideal Indian woman as accommodating. Self sacrificing and

devoted to serving
her family.

                    The emphasis on family and
community in Indian society has important application

for feminism
in India. The woman are fretted in family and they bound to family rules. Family

which is a patriarchal
world where the men are rules. This creates a rise of new wave feminism.

well understood the arbitrariness  and
injustice of the lot assigned to


     ” Women are not wrong at all when they
reject the rules of lifethat have  been


introduced in
to the world in as much as it is the men who have made these without them and

as” Mainly
the  rules are made and structured by
men. With in family , the male child and then

the young man
sees the women as having the same social dignity as the adult male. Simon De

monumental work ‘The Second Sex ‘ is worth mentioning in this context. The term

emphasizes the secondary role of female. In this book, Beauvoir has shown that

of female has been internalized not by the male alone, but equally by the

female unconsciously.

                               Feminism in its
literacy sense is the physical and psychics emancipation of

woman from
the cruel traditional clutches of man. Since time immemorial in the world,

Asian countries and in India the social custom and creeds have overall

man. In
Indian novels mainly women’s novel shows the feminists. Their novel contain the

for identity
has been at pet them for may a women’s novelist. For the portrayal of the

of middle class educated Indian woman, their inner conflict and issues

patriarchal institution , family and sex, suppression etc.

                       The feminist movement
further than focused through her rules was  Shobha De

who believes
as a women she has a great sympathy towards women without wearing feminist

Towards twentieth
century is a memorable record of the triumph and the

tragedy of
Indian people. Woman have always been projected as secondary and inferior human

beings. Feminism
is perhaps the most powerful movement that wasswept the literacy world in

the recent
decades , It has been articulated differently in different parts of the world
by various


depending upon their class , background and the level consciousness . Famous

in India such
as Anita Desai and Shashi Deshpande wrote significant novels in this field. To

and sympathizes the sensibility of feminism , it is important to observes that Indian

present altogether different picture sequence. The long and painful suffering

women , the
bitter struggles for the exception of the idea of equal pay for equal work the

battles on behalf of woman’s right to abortion and to practice of birth control

some of the
visible marks of the gender in equality that has persisted and that women had

fight to
inspire the commitments they were made under circumstances.Feminist situation

India possesses
a dissimilar dissention. Indian society has always been highly hierarchical .

 several hierarchy  with in the family concerning age ,sex , and  ordinal position congenial and

relationship or with in the community referring to the learning , occupation

relationship with  ruling power ,have been maintain strictly.

            The feminist thought and feminist movement
in the west have some influence on the

woman’s movement
in developing country like India .Yet feminism as it exists today in India

has gone
beyond its western country like India . Uma Narayanan rightly puts it that
third world

feminism is
not mindless mimicking of western  agenda
in one clear and simple sense . Due to

and cultural specification  of the
region,India has to think in terms of its agenda and

strategies. In
the Indian context several  feminists
have realised that the subject of women’s

invasion in
India should not be reduced to contradiction between men and women . The

 women in order to literate herself and advance
,needs to empower herself to confess different

structure and cultural practice that subject herself to patriarchal

and comfort.

Through the
writing  of Rama Mehta ,attempts to
address the problems of women in a

patriarchal  set up . The lot of women in a patriarchal set
up. The lot of women  everywhere

is almost
same. Their life is caught in a spider web of rules and regulations. Rama

novel ‘Inside the 
Haveli’ is best  proven example
of concept of feminism and women



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