Chapter IThe ProblemBackground of the Study Today, some foods can be a cause of a healthy body with a healthy life-style, it also can be a cure for some deceases. One of these deceases is Diabetes, this is a decease that can be characterized by hyperglycaemia. There are two types of Diabetes; the Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. Type 1 diabetes takes action when the body is unable to produce insulin. The type 2 diabetes occurs when one’s body cannot produce or create enough insulin when needed. Meanwhile, some foods are really raising their prices because of its new innovations in the taste, colour, odour and even the nutritional values of the products. On the other side, Puto, in Philippines, is a steamed mini rice-cake cuisine derived from the Indian dish, “puttu”. It is usually eaten with cheese and/or grated fresh coconut, or as an accompaniment for meals, specially the dinuguan. It is commonly sweet when it is eaten by itself as snack.Calabash tree or Cujete (Crescentia cujete) is a smooth, branched tree that usually grow up to 4 to 5 meters. Leaves are alternate, often fascicled at the nodes, that are 5 to 17 centimetres long, has a glossy surface and blunt at the tip and narrowed at the base. Flowers develop from the buds that grow from the main trunk, yellowish and sometimes veined with purple, with a slightly foetid odor, occurring singly or in pairs at the leaf axils, stalked and about 6 centimetres long, and opens in the evening. Calyx is about 2 centimetres long, and split into two lobes. Fruit is short-stemmed, rounded, oval or oblong, green or purplish, 15 to 20 centimetres in diameter. Calabash is rich in flavonoids quercetin. Flavonoids have a wide range of biological activities, such as cell proliferation-inhibiting, antibacterial, and antioxidant effects. In this area, calabash fruit isn’t as popular as any other fruit because of its different and unique aspects. That is why the researchers will make a product that will also use calabash for it to be also known for its nutritional values. In this situation, its can motivate and creates an idea on how and why they will create a puto out of calabash fruit. Hence, the research study entitled, “THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CALABASH FRUIT (Crescentia cujete)AS AN ADDITIVE TO PUTO ” was proposed.Statement of the ProblemThis study aims to produce a puto out of calabash fruit with its high nutritional value.Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:What is the difference between the commercially made puto and the puto made of calabash in terms of;Taste;Odor;Life shelf;Nutritional value;What are the economic advantages of using commercially made puto and the puto made of calabash?HypothesisHo = There is no significance difference between commercially made puto and the puto made of calabash in terms of:Smell;Taste;Life shelf;Nutritional statusSignificance of the Study This study makes people use less puto that has a rate of fatty acids. Instead, using Calabash plant peeling extract in puto that gives many nutritional values and it is natural. Its taste can make your food more delicious, more enjoyable to eat and it’s guilt-free for it is non-caloric. As for diabetic patients, puto can be now available for those who crave a healthier food. The researcher seeks for harmless sugar substitute so it cannot cause danger to anyone.Scope and Delimitations This study will focused on the effect of the Calabash plant peelings and extract in puto.The researcher will use small quantities of calabash plant and therefore, the puto is producing limited in quantity. This study will be conducted in the month of January, 2018 at Bautista, Pangasinan.Definition and Terms To have better understanding, the following terms were operationally defined. Calabash plantCujete is a smooth, much-branched tree growing to a height of 4 to 5 meters. Extract to remove (something) by pulling it out or cutting. To get something from something.Sucralosean artificial and non-caloric sweetener.Sucralose has no effect on tooth decay and is commonly found in oral health products, such as chewing gum. It also has less of an impact on blood glucose than sugar.Putoa steamed rice minicake cuisine. PeelingsThe outer membranous covering of fruits. FlavonoidsFlavonoids are a group of plant metabolites thought to provide health benefits through cell signaling pathways and antioxidant effects. These molecules are found in a variety of fruits and vegetables.Honeya sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers.CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIESThis chapter deals with the information for the reader to gain knowledge about food colorings, sugar-substitutes and significance of the Calabash plant. Related Literature According to(Little and Wadsworth 1964; Elias and Prance 1978)The Common Calabash Tree (Crescentia cujete) has been cultivated widely throughout the New World tropics since prehistoric times; its exact native range is uncertain. It is a small tree with light green bell-shaped flowers (5 to 6.5 cm long) that are borne singly on stout stalks on the trunk and branches. The flowers are bat-pollinated and are produced irregularly throughout the year. The large fruit (technically a type of berry to botanists, specifically a “pepo”) has a thin hard shell and whitish pulp and does not split open. The many seeds are dark brown, thin, and flat. The very young fruits are soft.A few long spreading branches form a broad open crown. There are enlarged nodes on the stout light brown or gray twigs. The very large, hard, nearly round (sometimes oval) green to brown fruits, 10 to 30 cm in diameter, resemble gourds (but are not in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae). The spoon-shaped leaves (5 to 18 cm long and 2 to 5 cm broad) are arranged in clusters along the stout twigs. The Common Calabash Tree reaches a height of 6 to 9 m or more with a trunk diameter of 30 cm or more. It may be evergreen or deciduous in areas with dry seasons. Like some other fruits of species in the family Bignoniaceae, the fruits of this species possess nectar-producing nectaries. In some other species in this family, these nectaries have been shown to attract ants that drive away animals that feed on the plants (in at least one case, pollinators are attracted to these extrafloral nectaries); although the nectaries on soft young fruits of C. cujete do attract ants, no protective function has yet been demonstrated for this species.This species is now widely grown throughout the tropics of both the Old World and New World for its fruits, which are used to make bowls, cups, jugs, water containers, and other utensils, as well as (often decorated) ornaments and musical instruments. It is also grown as an ornamental. Blocks of calabash bark and wood, as well as the trees themselves, have been used for growing orchids. The pulp of the fruit is poisonous and has been used in some areas for traditional medical treatments. Reportedly, the seeds are sometimes cooked and eaten. These trees are commonly encountered on hillside pastures, along roadsides, and wherever they are planted by humans, occurring especially in drier areas. They are easily propagated from seeds or cuttings, but grow slowly. Cultivated varieties may produce larger fruits than do wild trees. Tying and training the growing fruits can reportedly produce a range of shapes. Calabash plantCujete is a smooth, much-branched tree growing to a height of 4 to 5 meters. Branches are arching with close-set clusters of leaves. Leaves are alternate, often fascicled at the nodes, oblanceolate, 5 to 17 centimeters long, glossy at the upper surface, blunt at the tip and narrowed at the base. Flowers develop from the buds that grow from the main trunk, yellowish and sometimes veined with purple, with a slightly foetid odor, occurring singly or in pairs at the leaf axils, stalked and about 6 centimeters long, and opens in the evening. Calyx is about 2 centimeters long, and split into two lobes. Fruit is short-stemmed, rounded, oval or oblong, green or purplish, 15 to 20 centimeters in diameter.Nutritional Value of a typical calabash plant Calabash Tree is a small evergreen tropical tree which can grow up to a height of 25 feet and produce fruits up to 25 cm in diameter. It has simple leaves and the bark of the tree is rough. The fruit is large, hard and green in color and takes about six months to ripen. They cannot be eaten but can be used for various ornamental purposes. The fruits are pollinated by bats and they develop from the trunk of the tree. The seeds of the fruit are flat, small and are embedded in the pulp.It containsVitamin B1 (thiamine) 0.01mg,Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) 12.43mgCaloriesIf you are looking for a tree plant that are very nutritious and delicious, but will help keep your weight in check, calabash plant are a perfect choice. A 4.7g serving of calabash plant has only 60 calories: 18 calories from fat (all unsaturated), 8 calories from protein and 34 calories from carbohydrates. Calabash plant do have a complex carbohydrates, so they can be easily broken down by the body.Importance of eating a Calabash plantMost Filipinos call it miracle fruit, because, it can cure some diseases, even cancer. In General Santos City, a group of students from the Notre Dame of Dadiangas University found that “calabash extracts have the ability to prevent blood vessel growth and development.” As such, it “could be used to help prevent the cancer cells in the human body.” Related StudiesLocal StudiesIn Philippines, dragon fruit is believed to be effective in inducing regular bowel movement. Dragon fruit also boosts immune system. Dragon fruit is rich in vitamin C and fibers that help provide an overall healthy body.Off-season production of Dragon Fruit is made possible by manipulating the environment through artificial lighting using 6-watt Light Emitting Diode (LED) bulbs or 26-watt compact fluorescent lamps (CFL).(Leonardo T. Pascua, 2013) In this case, it is possible for the researcher to produce Sugar-free puto with the Dragon Fruit Peelings any time( Following the study of Pascua). Foreign StudiesAccording to Kolla R. L. AnandSwarup(2010), the dragon fruit extract were investigate to have been effective in controlling oxidative damage and decreasing the aortic stiffness measured by PWV in STZ-induced diabetes in rats.According to Cook and Samman, (1996); Havsteen, (2002), Dragon fruit naturally-occurring flavonoidshas various clinical properties, such as antiatherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antithrombogenic, antiosteoporotic, and antiviral effects. According to NATTAYA LOURITH (2013), Dragon fruit is considered as a functional fruit with a decorative effect. The peel colour was evaluated on activity and stability. More preferred colour was obtained from water extract with a higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content than the ethanolic one. Chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin were determined for the first time. Water extract having red-purple colour was stable at higher pH and temperature. Dragon fruit peel is a potential source of red-purple colour with a moderate antioxidant activity for food and cosmetic decorations. Its ecological origin is meeting an economical perspective and the consumers’ preference for green products. Dragon fruit is also rich in phytoalbumins which are highly valued for its antioxidant properties. Dragon fruit is rich in fibers, vitamin C, minerals, and phytoalbumins which are highly valued for its antioxidant properties. Conceptual Framework The researcher will believed that the calabash plant peelings and extract is safe. The following was the paradigm of the study showing the input, process, and output involved. Input Process DependentCHAPTER IIIMethodologyThis chapter provides information concerning research design, and the materials use in conducting the research study, the methods and procedures, and the variables to be investigate in order to determine the potential Calabash plant peels and extract in puto preparation.Research design This study will be using the experimental design. Experimental design is a research in which the procedures and statistical treatments will derive from scientific experiments. Research Subject The researcher will use saccharin as the sugar substitute and calabash plant peelings and extract. EXPERIMENTAL FLOW CHARTMaterials and Procedures To make the calabash plant (Crescentia cujete ) peeling and extract, the researcher needs the following: For the extraction, the researcher needs peelings of used Calabash Plant, knife, blender, bowl and container.Extraction Prepare the Calabash plant Peelings and cut it in medium sizes. Put them in a clean blender and start blending. Put the finished product in a clean container and put some in a mug that later will be used in sugar-free puto preparation.Making The Puto Preparation with the Calabash Plant Peelings and ExtractsIngredients: Rice FlourBaking PowderHoney/ SucraloseEggCalabash plant Peelings extractMaterials:ContainerSet of spoonBowlMixerRamekins/ Muffin PansSteamerKnife Whisk 1 cup of rice flour, 1 tablespoon of baking powder, and 30 packs of Sucralose (equivalent to 2 teaspoon each)/honey of sucralose/honeytogether in a bowl. Add 1 egg, the calabash plant extract and mix until well combined. Pour mixture into 3-inch ramekins or muffin pans until about two thirds full. Place ramekins or muffin pans in a steamer over medium to high heat. Make sure the water is boiling rapidly. Steam until cakes are firm and cooked, about 25 minutes. Take the cakes out of the steamer and let them cool on the kitchen counter until they can be handled. Run a knife around the edges and use the knife to lift the minicake out of the ramekin. They are best the day they are made but can be stored in the fridge in an airtight container and reheated in a steamer. The researcher gathers the Calabash Plant in Bautista, Pangasinan.Flowchart of Research ProcedureData GatheringThe researcher used a rating chart questionnaire which includes the instrument that will help the respondents in rating the quality of calabash fruit in puto making in terms of the following characteristics:Taste OdorStatistical TreatmentMean, as a measure of central tendency, was utilized to determine the effectiveness of the product against a prepared questionnaire. On the other hand, t-test was used to determine the significance of the means of characteristics of the dragon fruit food coloring for puto and the artificial one.