In the historical process there have been many changes for the advancement of society. Greece, Europe, and Italy all went through radical changes. Their new styles and remarkable advances led them through the Classical and Renaissance periods.
Greece was referred to as Classical Greece during the period of Greek history between 500 B.C.E and 338 B.C.E. This was considered to be a time of brilliant achievement. The Greek culture was certainly changed over this time. The History of the Persian Wars was a work that was considered the first piece if real history in Western Civilization.
Many great historians came out of Greece during this time period. Thucydides was one of these great historians. One of his greatest achievements was the History of the Peloponnesian War. Another point to be made about Thucydides was his insight into the human condition. He stated, “It will be enough for me, however, if those who want to understand clearly the events which happened in the past and which (human nature being what it is) will, at some time or another, and in much the same ways, be repeated in the future.
Other changes came about in Greece during this time. The Greeks introduced drama. The origins remain to be unclear, but historians believe that it was developed from religious rituals. Tragedy was also intended to educate individuals as well as entertain them. Greek tragedies dealt with problems such as the nature of good and evil, the conflict between spiritual values, and the demands of the state or family, the nature of the divine forces, and the nature of human beings.
The arts were also going through changes during the Classical Greece period. The standards established by the Greeks were dominated throughout the Western world. Classical Greek art usually portrayed human beings as the subjects and represented them as objects of great beauty.
Greece was not the only place that went through changes. Europe went through a Renaissance period, or a rebirth of learning. Education was provided for the clergy and government officials. The strong will for learning led to a revival among the people.
Compared to Greece, Europe did not undergo as many changes; education and the revival of classical studies were the most important. There was an attempt to assimilate and preserve Latin and early Christian culture. Monks were required to copy manuscripts. The practice of scriptoria was introduced during this time. Scriptoria, or writing rooms, were where monks copied the works of Christianity.
The time period that was mostly associated with the idea of the rebirth was the Italian Renaissance. Some of the greatest advocates of the Renaissance culture were the popes. Pope Julius II patrolled the culture because he wanted to tear down the old basilica of Saint Peter and begin the construction of the new one in the Christendom.The Renaissance was also an age of recovery from the fourteenth century.
Many practices were changed during the Renaissance period including literature, printing, education, and art. One of the greatest works was the Divine Comedy by Dante, which was about the soul’s progression into salvation. Another great author was Geoffrey Chaucer, who wrote Canterbury Tales. This was a collection of stories about a group of pilgrims on their way to the tomb of Saint Thomas of Canterbury.
Printing also flourished during this time. The newest development was moveable type, and because of this rapid change Johannes Gutenburg published the first book.Printing then became one of the largest industries in Europe.
The humanist movement had a profound impact on education. They produced secondary schools based on their educational theory.A treatise titled Concerning Character was established during this time, stressing the importance of liberal arts.
Finally one of Italy’s greatest changes came with art. During this time Leonardo da Vinci was thriving. The works of da Vinci, Raphael, and Michaelangelo dominated the High Renaissance. Leonardo represented a transitional figure into the shift to the High Renaissance. One of his most famous works was The Last Supper. Raphael tried to achieve an ideal of beauty in his work. He is well known for his Frescoes in the Vatican Palace. Michaelangelo was a man of all trades. Neopolatonism influenced him. This was evident in his figures in the Sistine Chapel.
Changes and rebirth are evident in the Italian, Greek, and European cultures, although more prominent in some areas. Rebirth for many meant a new beginning and a new life. This flourishing time gave the people a feeling of great hope for what lied ahead.
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