?Born New York (Herrmann, 1998) Virginia Henderson was

?Born
November 30, 1897 in Kansas City, Missouri & grew up in Virginia

?1921:
Received a diploma at Army School of Nursing at Walter Reed Hospital

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?1921-1923:
Staff Nurse, Visiting Nurse association of New York City & Washington DC

?1924-1929:
Started teaching at Norfolk Protestant Hospital School of Nursing, Norfolk,
Virginia

?1930-1931:
Clinical Instructor, Strong Memorial Hospital & School of Nursing,
University of Rochester, Rochester, New York

?1932
& 1934: Earned B.S. & M.A in nursing education at Columbia University
Teachers College

?1934-1948:
Taught clinical nursing courses at Teachers college, Columbia University, New
York (Herrmann, 1998)

 

Virginia Henderson was
born on November 30, 1897, in Kansas City, Missouri to Lucy & Daniel
Henderson. Henderson was the fifth child of eight children & lived mostly
in Virginia where her father practiced law &
represented Native American Indians disputes with the U.S. Government in 1937.

She received early education at a preparatory school owned by her mother’s
family. During World War I, Henderson began to show her interest in nursing to
help the sick & wounded soldiers. She attended Army School of Nursing in
Washington, D.C. graduated in 1921. Right after graduation, she taught numerous
nursing schools as a clinical instructor & an educational director in
Virginia & New York (Herrmann,1998).

 

 

 

?1948-1953: Revised the 5th edition of The Principles &
Practice of Nursing

?1953-1958: Research Associate, Yale University School of Nursing

?1959-1971: Directed the Nursing Studies Index Project

?1971-1996: Research Associate Emeritus, Yale University School
of Nursing

?Wrote 11 books, more than 40 articles, chapters, & book
reviews.

?Received 12 Honorary Doctorate Degrees & recipient of 
International Council of Nursing’s Christianne Reimann Prize

?Died March 19, 1996 in Branford, Connecticut (Herrmann, 1998)

 

In 1953, she was
hired to be a part of an analysis team that evaluated the research done in the
field of nursing. From this, they found that the these researches focused on
evaluating nurses and not on the care provided by the nurses. It was then that
Henderson realized nursing responsibilities were never clearly defined, which
was why she started writing nursing journals that were more clinically based

Between the years of
1959 and 1971 Virginia Henderson was funded to lead the Nursing Studies Index
Project. This project lead to a published four volume Nursing Studies Index.

Henderson states that the nurse’s role is to develop a plan that is therapeutic
in helping the patient. Virginia Henderson has earned 12 Honorary Doctorate
degrees & the International Council of Nursing’s Christianne Reimann Prize,
a prestigious award in nursing.

(Herrmann,1998).

“I believe that the function the nurse performs is primarily an
independent one-that of acting for the patient when he lacks knowledge,
physical strength, or the will to act for himself as he would ordinarily act in
health, or in carrying out prescribed therapy. This function is seen as complex
& creative, as offering unlimited opportunity for the application of the
physical, biological, & social sciences, & the development of kills
based on them.”

(Henderson, 1966)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For more than 60 years
of her career, she was a nurse, teacher, author, & researcher. She was
married to her career & is known as the Florence Nightingale of the 20th
century. Through her years of work, her emphasis was holistic care focused in
promoting the individual’s independence. She past away at the age of 98 in
March 19,1996 in Branford, Connecticut.

Even if Virginia
Henderson’s work was a big part in making nursing theories, she herself was not
trying to make a nursing theory. Her plan was to simply define the role &
purpose of nursing.

Nursing theories were
not generated until the 80’s, which was a time after the majority of Virginia
Henderson accomplishments. This is why the assumptions & domains for nursing
are detectable yet lacks the full structure of a Nursing Theory.

She believed the role
of nursing to assist in gaining independence for every patient in their care.

This means that the nurse would help the patient in conducting wellness and/or
recuperating activities including activities that they would normally do
without assistance if they had the needed willpower, education, or health.

These activities would be executed to assist the patient achieve independence
in the shortest time yet in an effective manner (Masters, 2017).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

?Virginia Henderson did not want to create a theory of nursing,
but instead wanted to outline the focus of nursing practice.

?Through her years of practice & education Virginia Henderson
developed the Nursing Need Theory.

?The Nursing Need Theory aimed at promoting independence in
patients, so that after being hospitalized, the patient’s improvement would not
be deferred. (“Need Theory,” n.d.)

 

During our research we
learned that there is controversy about whether she has a theory or not.

Several sources state that Virginia’s goal was to define the role of nursing,
not necessarily to develop a nursing theory. However, you may come across
research that states that the Need Theory is indeed a theory. The
Nursing Need Theory aimed at promoting independence in patients, so that after
being hospitalized, the patient’s improvement would not be deferred. (“Need
Theory,” n.d.)

 

 

 

1.Person – The individual consists of biopsychosocial & spiritual
needs.

2.Health – Promoting self sufficiency through the
14 essential nursing care components.

3.Nursing – Assisting, supporting, & serving the
clients until independence is gained.

4.Environment – Surroundings that affects the
individual’s growth & development. (Yoost and Crawford, 2016)

 

 

The description of the
theory includes four major concepts that Virginia Henderson developed within
her theory.  She describes person as the individual who receives care from
the nurse to satisfy biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual
needs. Health is described achieving independence through the application of
the 14 fundamental care components, which will be discuss in further detail
shortly.

Nursing is described as
the assistance provided to the individual to promote independence in areas that
are lacking autonomy,while preventing dependency of the nursing care.

Environment involves promoting a safe surrounding for the individual to achieve
independence (Yoost and Crawford, 2016).

 

 

 

?Nursing care is provided to the patient until independence &
self care are seen in the patient.

?Nurse will dedicate her time to the patients continuously.

?Nursing education should be received at a college level not only
in science, but other subjects such as art (“Need Theory,” n.d.).

Virginia Henderson
recognized three major assumptions of the Nursing Need Theory. She states that
nursing care is provided to the patient until independence & self care are
seen in the patient. Independence is achieved in a timely manner to reduce
recovery time. The nurse will dedicate her time to the patients continuously to
assure the patient will return to a healthy state. Lastly, nursing education
should be received at a college level not only in science, but other subject
like art and classes like this, professional role development (“Need Theory,”
n.d.).?

 

 

 

There are 14 elements
of human needs the nursing activities are classified under based on the needs
of each individual patient. These components show a holistic approach to
nursing that cover the physiological (PHY), psychological (PSY), moral &
spiritual (M), & social (SOC).

The components include:

1. Normal respirations, 2. Eat & drink enough, 3. Remove body
waste, 4. Move & sustain wanted postures, 5. Sleep & rest, 6. Choosing
appropriate outfits, 7. Changing clothes and their surroundings to keep the
temperature of the body in a healthy range, 8. Clean, primp and shield the
body, 9. Steer clear of harmful situations that would cause harm to self or
others, 10. Speaking to others to convey their feelings, wants, concerns, and
ideas, 11. Practicing their faith, 12. Take action with the purpose of
achieving satisfaction in what they did, 13. Partake in activities that they
enjoy, 14. Study or be taught a skill or to gain knowledge in desired
areas/topics that directs them towards developmentally benefitting from it, as
well as for their health and utilizing the medical establishments available to
them.

The meeting of all of these needs provides effective nursing care
(Masters, 2017).?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virginia
Henderson based her 14 components of need on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs.

Starting at the base of the pyramid the physiological needs include: Normal
respirations; Eat & drink enough; Remove body waste; Move & sustain
wanted postures; Sleep & rest; Choosing appropriate outfits; Changing
clothes and their surroundings to keep the temperature of the body in a healthy
range; Clean, primp and shield the body? Second
from the bottom, Steer clear of harmful situations that would cause harm to
self or others. Third from the bottom, love & belongingness includes:
Speaking to others to convey their feelings, wants, concerns, and ideas; Practicing
their faith. Second from the top esteem includes: Take action with the purpose
of achieving satisfaction in what they did; Partake in activities that they
enjoy; Study or be taught a skill or to gain knowledge in desired areas/topics
that directs them towards developmentally, benefitting from it, as well as for
their health and utilizing the medical establishments available to them. Lastly
the top of the pyramid does not include any of Virginia Henderson’s 14
components (Yoost and Crawford, 2016).

 

?Assessment – Patient X presents to the
clinic with an unkempt appearance, emits strong body odor & soiled
clothing. Keep in mind the patient may need assistive devices

 

?Diagnosis – Self care deficit characterized by the
inability to bathe & groom independently.

 

?Outcome – Long term plan & education to
establish healthy hygiene & grooming habits through daily showers, brushing
teeth twice a day & washing & changing cloths appropriately.

 

?Planning – Educate patient about the importance of
personal hygiene & care.

 

?Implementation – Teach & assist the
patient about washing hands face & body, oral hygiene, how to properly use
body cleaning products such as soap, shampoo, conditioner, loofah etc.  

 

?Evaluation – One week follow up
appointment to evaluate if the hygiene & grooming habits improved, as well
as assessment of integumentary, & oral health.

 

 

Virginia Henderson’s
theory of the nurse’s role is a standard practiced today across the entire
healthcare system. It is comprised of doing for the client, helping the client
& working with the client, with the ultimate goal of independence for them.

We have applied one of her 14 components & applied it to a clinical
situation using the nursing process ADOPIE.

Assessment – Patient X presents to the clinic with an unkempt
appearance, emits strong body odor & soiled clothing. Keep in mind the
patient may need assistive devices

Diagnosis – Self care deficit characterized by the inability to
bathe & groom independently.

Outcome – Long term plan & education to establish
healthy hygiene & grooming habits through daily showers, brushing teeth
twice a day & washing & changing cloths appropriately.

Planning – Educate patient about the importance of personal
hygiene & care.

Implementation – Teach & assist the patient about
washing hands face & body, oral hygiene, how to properly use body cleaning
products such as soap, shampoo, conditioner, loofah etc.  

Evaluation – One week follow up appointment to evaluate if
the hygiene & grooming habits improved, as well as assessment of
integumentary, & oral health.

“Virginia
Henderson has advocated humane & holistic care for patients, raised
important issues in health care, authored one of the most accurate definitions
of nursing, promoted nursing research as the basis for nursing knowledge, &
above all, represented nursing with dignity, honor, & grace.”

– American Nurses Association

 

 

“Virginia Henderson has advocated humane & holistic care for
patients, raised important issues in health care, authored one of the most
accurate definitions of nursing, promoted nursing research as the basis for
nursing knowledge, & above all, represented nursing with dignity, honor,
& grace” (“Henderson A. Henderson Inductee”, n.d.).

 

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