Before political structures as both of them

Before the Bronze Age when trade, military expansion and agricultural advances were key components of every kingdom, people lived in very simple societies that consisted of “weaving, pottery making, metalwork and trade” which were the basic occupations in “Neolithic village life” ( page 9). This simple society is one that depicts what life was like in early Mesopotamia, which was founded by the Ubaids in 5900 B.C.  Once the Ubaid settlements began to expand, so did their ability to trade. This lead to the new development of writing which would eventually become essential for all societies. Egypt was also starting to expand and flourish at this time, and the flooding of the Nile each year gave them an agricultural advantage that Mesopotamia did not have. The Nile was the the foundation of Egypt that would “forge a cultural and eventually a political unity” (page 23) not only between the two regions of Egypt itself but also other places such as Mesopotamia, and later on Rome. Mesopotamia and Egypt also started rely heavily on each of their political structures as both of them started to expand. Egypt in particular depended on their Pharaoh to bring “stability and longevity to Egyptian civilization” (page 25), he was seen as a divine and godly figure to his subjects, and he was the person who resolved “political unity” conflicts (page 25). The Pharaoh was responsible for the overall success of Egypt each year, especially in agriculture. Eventually, Pharaoh was no longer seen as someone who was divine to the Egyptian people because priest gave him the  status of a earthly figure instead. Once his status of being divine was taken away from him, the power shifted from Pharaoh to priest and nobility. This damaged  “Pharaoh’s political theology”, until he had no power left at all in the year 2160 B.C.E (page 29).  Another technological advancement that the Egyptians relied on was the use of the papyrus, which helped them excel in trade with other Kingdoms.


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