Before anymore. The English School thinker Hedley Bull

Before wondering if international politics can be more peaceful over time, we should wonder if we
desire it. Indeed, it involves a cultural, juridical, political and economic homogenization of the world.
Nonetheless, how can we consider a homogenization of the different juridical cultures in countries that
are completely opposed? We cannot choose an existing culture and imposing it as it would be unfair.
Peace seems possible in a local way as the European Union shows us but to extend those values and
rules to a global extent looks more like an authoritarian project than a real progress. Francis Fukuyama
talks about ‘the End of History’ to explain that liberal values will prevail in international politics.
Technically, it seems that peace is possible but not practicable in the twenty-first century. Moreover, if
we take into consideration the fragility of its theoretical basis: people living under a republican
constitution may want war. Not only the federal model described by Kant looks difficult to attain but its
foundations are questionable. Indeed, the basis of this reasoning can be questioned: if citizens have the
choice between preparing a war by arming themselves or not, will they really choose the second option?
One may argue that the liberal and realist paradigms are not appropriate anymore. The English School
thinker Hedley Bull adopts a nuanced position and admits that there is an international anarchy.
Nevertheless, this anarchical structure of international politics does not stop countries to gather, beyond
a simple international system, an international society that exists when states, ‘conscious of certain
interests and values, form a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common
set of rules in their relations with one another, and share in the working of common institutions’ (Bull,
2002: 13). This vision of peace in international politics seems more adapted to the current situation.


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