Average activities), determined by the demands of

macronutrient and fluid intake



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to the clients 3 day Nutritics analysis, 47.8% of the athlete’s diet is taken
up by carbohydrates. A study conducted by Maughan (1997) recommended that even
though a diet contributed by 50% carbohydrates is satisfactory for the average
person, a carbohydrate intake equivalent ranging from 60-70% of total energy
intake is adequate for sportsmen and women. Client 2110 is only consuming 253g
(3.9g/kg/BW), conversely, the athlete should be within the range of 325-455g,
demonstrating that they are below their recommended carbohydrate intake and
could increase this by implementing carbohydrate-rich foods such as pasta, rice
and potatoes into their diet.


et al. (2016) advised typical carbohydrate intake to range from 3-10g/kg BW/d
(up to 12g/kg for prolonged activities), determined by the demands of training
and competition. Some studies reviewing the nutritional demands for football,
authors emphasized the need for a high carbohydrate intake, with a 10g/kg/BW
suggested, 2-3 days before competition (Maughan 1997). A high carbohydrate
(CHO) diet (~70% total energy from CHO) combined with increased muscle glycogen
stores seemed to bolster endurance capacity when it was compared with a normal
(~50%) and low (~10%) CHO diet (Jeukendrup, 2004). In turn, this demonstrates
that the athlete having reduced CHO in their diet will ultimately result in
decreased performance.



average over the 3 days recorded, client 2110 consumed 1.7g/kg/BW of protein,
equating to 20.2% of the athlete’s total daily energy intake, according to the
Nutritics analysis PDF. A study by Lemon (1994) concluded that a protein intake
of 1.4-1.7g/kg/BW per day ought to be substantial for football players, by
supplying amino acids for any elevated amino acid oxidation that could occur
during training and/or competition. Branch chain amino acids (BCAAs),
particularly leucine, have anabolic effects on protein metabolism by reducing
the rate of protein breakdown in resting human muscle but also promoting the
rate of protein synthesis (Blomstrand et al., 2006).


Tarnopolsky (2004) determined endurance athletes would not meet the demands of
their event with a daily protein intake of 1.0g/kg/BW. However, this is not a
problem for client 2110 as they are within the range of protein intake needed
for adequate performance and recovery. High quality dietary proteins such as
egg, beef, pork, and concentrated vegetable protein are effective for the
maintenance, repair, and synthesis of skeletal muscle proteins. Conversely,
when whole food protein sources are not available for the athlete, dietary
supplements with high quality amino acids are much more convenient and serve as
a respectable alternative to help the athlete reach their protein requirements
(Thomas et al., 2016). This may not be as applicable for client 2110 but is useful
for the athlete to keep in mind.



to the athlete’s Nutritics analysis, the range of adequate fluid intake should
be between 2146-3220ml. The mean fluid intake over the 3 days was in fact
3252ml, exceeding this range greatly. Before exercise, it is recommended that
you are euhydrated and have normal plasma electrolyte levels. Albeit, during
exercise the main goal is to prevent >2% body weight loss from fluid
(dehydration) and excessive changes in electrolyte balance to avoid compromised
performance levels (Sawka et al., 2007).


during exercise results from needing to sustain body temperature close to
normal (~37ºC). At high ambient temperatures heat is lost from the body by the
process of evaporation of water from the skin surface, resulting in dehydration
and electrolyte loss (Maughan, 2004). Maughan also mentions that cognitive
performance is a critical aspect of games such as football, which is also
impaired by dehydration. A study by Magal et al. (2003) compared glycerol and
water dehydration and rehydration on sprint and agility performance.

Interestingly, Magal and colleagues found that even though the degree of hypo hydration
was modest (~2.7% fluid weight loss), sprint times (5m and 10m) were
significantly slower after the exercise induced dehydration. Andrzejewski et
al. (2013) performed a detail analysis on the sprinting activity of
professional football players, concluding that the average number of sprints
performed by the players was 11.2 ±
5.3. This illustrates hydration is vital for client 2110 as this can negatively
affect performance, however their fluid intake seems satisfactory but timing
needs to be examined.



The athlete’s fat intake was 1.2g//kg/BW over the
3 days, equating to 32% total energy intake. Clark (1994) recommended that a
training diet for football players should constitute less than 30% of total
energy intake from the macronutrient fat. Conversely, an article by Pendergast
et al. (2000) discussed the perspective on fat intake in athletes. Pendergast and
colleagues found that high-fat diets (42-55% total energy intake) that
sustained adequate carbohydrate levels showed to increase in endurance compared
to a diet low in fat (10-15%). On the contrary, a baseline diet containing 30%
fat is recommended for discussion. Fat intake is important and should be
satisfactory (20-25%) to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble
vitamins, whilst also providing fitting energy for weight conservation (ACSM,


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