becomes essential for novice users to author ITS and modify it easily.
Modifying any feature leads toward involvement of highly skilled programmers to
modify / change any feature. Modification becomes necessary when a teacher /
domain expert tries to modify course contents and teaching strategy or by
incorporating any new materials. These limitations can be address through use
of an authoring tool / system for ITS. Authoring tools benefits are:
It reduces development time and cost for domain experts to
Modifications become easy through authoring tool and new
features can be add easily.
It supports principles and rules for user interface development.
Different tutoring techniques can be used in an ITS.
Runtime modification in teaching domain become easy for novice
users to change strategy.
It is helpful in designing evaluation methods.
Murry 5 briefly
described the categories of different authoring tools with their examples:
Table 1: ITS Authoring Tools by
IDE, ISD Expert, Expert CML
RIDES, SIMQUEST, XAIDA
D3 Trainer, Training Express
DNA, ID-Expert, IRIS, XAIDA
GETMAS, InterBook, MetaLinks
The development of an ITS authoring
system needs to address the design issues of ITS as well as the issues of authoring
tool. Murray in his survey of ITS Authoring Tool 11 classified them into two
major groups – Pedagogy oriented and performance-oriented. Pedagogy-oriented
tool focused on sequencing and teaching of curriculum or learning materials.
Whereas, in performance-oriented tools, the focus was given on how the students
can learn and acquire skills according to their performance. Various ITS authoring
systems have been developed which belonged to either the former or to the
latter category, but none yet possess capabilities of both.