Aquilaria leaves in order to extract the compounds

Aquilaria malaccensis is a species of plant in the Thymelaeaceae
family, famously known as agarwood (also known as aloeswood or eaglewood) which
normally refers to dense, heavy and fragrant resinous wood which is formed in
the trees of Aquilaria. This species is native to South and Southeast Asian
countries and mainly found in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand (Alwi et al, 2017).

Aquilaria has wide range of
applications and often used as incense, perfumery, medicine, religious
ceremony, and as ornamentals. The highly prized essential oil distilled from
this herb is generally used in perfumery and cosmetic products in
Middle-Eastern countries. (Adam et al, 2017). Other than the ordinary uses of Aquilaria tree, it has also been found to have many medicinal
benefit as health supplement.

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Numerous studies have been
conducted concentrating on the medicinal benefits of this tree and the fact
that all parts of this plant are very beneficial to health makes this tree
unique. Studies on Aquilaria leaves
have shown that it has various health properties such anti-oxidant, anti-microbial,
anti-inflammatory activity and hepatoprotective. Addition to that, Aquilaria leaves have been shown to have
potential as anti-cancer and in anti-diabetic activity (anti-hyperglycemic) (Hashim et al, 2016). Moreover, Aquilaria
malaccensis is deemed as valuable and important tree commonly in South Asia
and often used as traditional medicine to relieve pain, fever, rheumatism,
arrest vomiting, and asthma (Samadi et al., 2017). Drying method of Aquilaria
leaves in order to extract the compounds is similar to the drying method of
food and agricultural materials. This drying method is usually applied in food
preservation.

The oldest method of food
preservation includes sun drying and hot air drying and is widely adopted due
to its advantages such as low capital investment and simple operation. However,
it is shown to have more undesired effect than benefits such as long drying
time and high labour cost for sun drying (Xie et al., 2017). Meanwhile, manufacturing conventional fried foods
has long adopted hot air drying method. When higher quality product is
required, freeze-drying method was developed later. Even so, there are still
many losses of thermal energy in hot air drying (Mongpraneet et al,
2002).

Far-infrared radiation (FIR)
drying has the unique characteristics of energy transfer mechanism where the
energy in the form of electromagnetic wave is absorbed directly by the product
without loss to the environment, which leads to considerable energy savings. In
terms of drying foods and agricultural materials, infrared radiation has
received more attention during the past decade due to the reduced energy
requirement of the process. Various studies have proposed and tested the
infrared radiation method and it has been found that infrared radiation
significantly reduced drying time and energy consumption of convective drying
process. Furthermore, the product quality has also improved compared to using
hot air drying. Vacuum drying is often applied when it is needed to speed up
the drying process without deteriorating the dried product quality (Nimmol, 2010).

Acetaminophen, also known as N-acetyl-p-aminophenol
or paracetamol, is a readily available, over-the-counter antipyretic and analgesic
compound. It is the most often prescribed drug used to treat mild-to-moderate
pain and fever (Pacifici &
Allegaert, 2015). Acetaminophen has also been deemed as pain reliever
and a fever reducer. This medication can be taken by oral and rectal route and
its effectiveness and side effects has long been studied. Earlier literatures discussed
on the pharmacology and it is found that the mechanism of action of paracetamol
is still not clearly understood. Previous researches have shown that overdose
from paracetamol can lead to liver damage and can cause death. Therefore,
serious considerations need to be taken on acetaminophen dosing before taking
it as medication.Aquilaria malaccensis is a species of plant in the Thymelaeaceae
family, famously known as agarwood (also known as aloeswood or eaglewood) which
normally refers to dense, heavy and fragrant resinous wood which is formed in
the trees of Aquilaria. This species is native to South and Southeast Asian
countries and mainly found in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand (Alwi et al, 2017).

Aquilaria has wide range of
applications and often used as incense, perfumery, medicine, religious
ceremony, and as ornamentals. The highly prized essential oil distilled from
this herb is generally used in perfumery and cosmetic products in
Middle-Eastern countries. (Adam et al, 2017). Other than the ordinary uses of Aquilaria tree, it has also been found to have many medicinal
benefit as health supplement.

Numerous studies have been
conducted concentrating on the medicinal benefits of this tree and the fact
that all parts of this plant are very beneficial to health makes this tree
unique. Studies on Aquilaria leaves
have shown that it has various health properties such anti-oxidant, anti-microbial,
anti-inflammatory activity and hepatoprotective. Addition to that, Aquilaria leaves have been shown to have
potential as anti-cancer and in anti-diabetic activity (anti-hyperglycemic) (Hashim et al, 2016). Moreover, Aquilaria
malaccensis is deemed as valuable and important tree commonly in South Asia
and often used as traditional medicine to relieve pain, fever, rheumatism,
arrest vomiting, and asthma (Samadi et al., 2017). Drying method of Aquilaria
leaves in order to extract the compounds is similar to the drying method of
food and agricultural materials. This drying method is usually applied in food
preservation.

The oldest method of food
preservation includes sun drying and hot air drying and is widely adopted due
to its advantages such as low capital investment and simple operation. However,
it is shown to have more undesired effect than benefits such as long drying
time and high labour cost for sun drying (Xie et al., 2017). Meanwhile, manufacturing conventional fried foods
has long adopted hot air drying method. When higher quality product is
required, freeze-drying method was developed later. Even so, there are still
many losses of thermal energy in hot air drying (Mongpraneet et al,
2002).

Far-infrared radiation (FIR)
drying has the unique characteristics of energy transfer mechanism where the
energy in the form of electromagnetic wave is absorbed directly by the product
without loss to the environment, which leads to considerable energy savings. In
terms of drying foods and agricultural materials, infrared radiation has
received more attention during the past decade due to the reduced energy
requirement of the process. Various studies have proposed and tested the
infrared radiation method and it has been found that infrared radiation
significantly reduced drying time and energy consumption of convective drying
process. Furthermore, the product quality has also improved compared to using
hot air drying. Vacuum drying is often applied when it is needed to speed up
the drying process without deteriorating the dried product quality (Nimmol, 2010).

Acetaminophen, also known as N-acetyl-p-aminophenol
or paracetamol, is a readily available, over-the-counter antipyretic and analgesic
compound. It is the most often prescribed drug used to treat mild-to-moderate
pain and fever (Pacifici &
Allegaert, 2015). Acetaminophen has also been deemed as pain reliever
and a fever reducer. This medication can be taken by oral and rectal route and
its effectiveness and side effects has long been studied. Earlier literatures discussed
on the pharmacology and it is found that the mechanism of action of paracetamol
is still not clearly understood. Previous researches have shown that overdose
from paracetamol can lead to liver damage and can cause death. Therefore,
serious considerations need to be taken on acetaminophen dosing before taking
it as medication. 

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