Angel Lin & Rita ChenMr. Collins10-315 January, 2017Penicillin Penicillin, the first antibiotic which has been invented, is a kind of antibiotics which kills the bacterias in human bodies and it has now become the most widely used antibiotics nowadays. The antibiotic properties of the mould that made penicillin was first observed by Alexander Fleming 3 in St. Mary’s Hospital 8. Hence, the treatment was invented by Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Florey 3. As for Alexander Fleming, the observer, he received the Nobel Prize from King Gustaf V of Sweden on 10 December, 1945 10. Penicillin is a kind of antibodies which contains 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6 amino group. The nucleus penicillin is the major requirement for lives. The chemical structure determines many antibacterial characteristics1. Penicillin derivatives Penicillin G, Semisynthetic Penicillins, Aminopenicillins, Carboxypenicillins and Ureidopenicillins2. As for Penicillin’s physical properties, it is a white and slightly yellow crystalline powder. Its melting point is at about 209~212 degree celsius, its density is 1.41 g/cm3, its water solubility is 5~10g/ 100ml at 25 degree celsius and finally, its molar weight is 357.38 g/mol1&2. The molecular formula of Penicillin is Cl6Hl8N2O4S1. In order to understand the project better, we created a model. The model was made by styrofoam balls, we used different colors to represent different elements. The big size of white balls stand for carbon, the small size of white balls stand for hydrogen, the red balls stand for oxygen, the blue ones stand for nitrogen and the yellow one stands for sulfur. All the color on the balls expect for the white ones were all painted by acrylic colors. The right hand side of the model is a polygon trigonal planar (6 carbon benzene ring). Each angle is 120 degree. As your sights move right, the two hydrogen which combines with carbon are tetrahedral, the angle is 120 degree. The carbon oxygen double bond is where the white ball get two lines attached to the red ball, and the trigonal planar between hydrogen and oxygen are formed because there is one oxygen with double bond and hydrogen with single bond. The 2 carbon with nitrogen are trigonal pyramidal. Carbon bond with hydrogen is a single bond. On the top of the square, which is called beta lactam ring there are double bonds which oxygen bond with carbon. The sulfur is bent with carbon because of its long side, and nitrogen has trigonal pyramidal with carbon. The pentagon shape is called thiazolidine ring. The beta-lactam ring and thiazolidine ring are both the nucleus of the penicillin, as you can see later most of the antibioticos gets the beta lactam ring. As for the left hand side, two tetrahedral are formed where one carbon bond with three hydrogen. Also the carbon bond with oxygen on one side is a double bond with a single bond on the other side. As for the lewis structure, we had chosen a specific part of the penicillin and decided to focus on that part of it:we chose the part with the nucleus, which is between the beta-lactam ring and the thiazolidine ring. The chemical formula is HCN, which has one hydrogen, one carbon and one nitrogen. Hydrogen is in group 1 so it has one dot, carbon is in group 4, so when it connects with hydrogen it gets 5 dots and nitrogen is in group 5 which gets 5 dots, but because nitrogen needs to have a connection with carbon so it connects with lines instead of dots. The most important part of the penicillin — beta-lactam ring, which is a four-membered ring6. It is the nucleus of penicillin. As you can see, we chose part of the nucleus to do our lewis structure. It is one of the main part of the core structure of several antibiotic families. The ones which are mostly known are penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and monobactams, which are also called the beta-lactam antibiotics. 18 When people think of Penicillin, they often think of Amoxicillin, they have a lot in common since they’re actually in the same family of antibiotics, called the penicillin family. This family contains antibiotics that come from a fungus called Penicillium. However, they are actually different. Amoxicillin and Penicillin are both generic version available and are used to treat bacterial infections. The only difference is that Amoxicillin come in oral capsules, tables, extended-release tablets, and suspensions chewable tablets. Penicillin are oral tablets and solutions7. The discovery and development of penicillin can be seen as one of the most important breakthrough in the whole medical history. Penicillin can prevent germs from growing. It kills the bacteria by destroying its protein chain. Since it is organic, it can be used on or in the human body. It can prevent the infection from germs. The medicine were first developed during WWII by the U.S. government. It successfully prevented many soldiers from being infected. The medicine had saved many lives4. Penicillin had played a remarkable role, but soon discovered that they could be harmful to humans. Why? The disease they treated could become resistant to it. Also it has side effects to the human body. It can cause allergic reactions or hypersensitive to some people2. The United States has been through many ups and downs because of penicillin, and the distributors of penicillin gained a lot of money from hospitals, benefiting the economy. Since penicillin needed to be produced at high-rates, a lot of money was needed, and the economy at that time was not very good , so the money which was used for penicillin could harm the economy even more9. The invention of penicillin brought plenty of impacts on the present society, including our lives and the present science.First, the magnitude of the therapeutic outcomes resulting from the clinical application of penicillin and the subsequent widespread use of antibiotics. “The technologies developed for production of penicillin , including both microbial strain selection and improvement plus chemical engineering methods responsible for successful submerged fermentation production” 5. As for the process of making penicillin, since Penicillium mold naturally produces the antibiotic penicillin, scientists soon learned to grow Penicillium mold in deep fermentation tanks by adding a kind of sugar and other ingredients. This process increased the growth of Penicillium. Then, scientists separated the penicillin product from the mold.Finally, penicillin is purified for use as an antibiotic medicine11. In this project, we wanted to do some deeper researches on Penicillin treatments. After doing some researches, we decided to do the treatment of Neisseria meningitidis. “Neisseria meningitidis is a bacteria that is best known for its role in endemic bacterial meningitis. N. Meningitidis is described as a gram-negative diplococci. The fact that this bacteria is gram negative means that there is very little or no peptidoglycan in the cell wall12.” And this is a brain disease. The beginning of this disease is like a common cold but during the course of the disease, the patient will have to endure headache which causes the patient to coma in a few hours. After doctors and professors did researches they found out that penicillin is the First-line medication. Before using penicillin or other right antibiotics, 50% of patients die, but after using penicillin or other antibiotics only 10% of the patient will die. 13 During every years November till the next year March is the most Neisseria meningitidis infections is world wide, and it often happens during November to the next year of March. Now it mostly happens at the southern part of the Sahara desert. For example, in Taiwan, from November 21st to 25th, 2013, three people got this disease. The youngest patient was an eight-month-old kid17. So how do penicillin kill bacteria? Because penicillin get beta-lactam antibiotic that is the main part to form the antibiotics14. Penicillin inhibits its cross-linking activity and prevents the formation of bactericidal bacteria on the new cell wall by binding the beta-keto ring to DD-transpeptidase15.It is how penicillin kill bacteria. How about Neisseria meningitidis? Penicillin use the beta-lactam ring which is the square part to combine with penicillin binding proteins(PBPs) changes into peptidase. Hinder the formation of sticky peptide, resulting in cell wall defects, the bacteria lose the cell wall permeability barrier, can cause changes in bacterial morphology, rupture and thus play a role in gram-positive bacteria kill. And because Neisseria meningitidis is gram-negative also they get the protein inside the penicillin so it will change Filaments and spheroids, septal expansion, etc., leading to the end of bacterial growth, bacterial digestive enzymes so that meningococcus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae dissolved and died16. Although penicillin can solve part of penicillin can’t cure Nasopharyngeal bacteria completely17. Work Cited 1. Pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. (2017). Penicillin. online Available at: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/54607813#section=Top Accessed 29 Dec. 2017.2. Excellence.fju.edu.tw. (2017). 1945?????????. online Available at: http://www.excellence.fju.edu.tw/plan/2.1.1.c/content06/detail/194x/1945.htm Accessed 29 Dec. 2017 3. En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Howard Florey. online Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Florey Accessed 29 Dec. 2017.4. Schoolshistory.org.uk. (2017). Penicillin – The significance of the Breakthrough. online Available at: http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/gcse/medicine/importanceofpenicillin.htm Accessed 29 Dec. 2017.5. AL, K. (2017). Penicillin: the medicine with the greatest impact on therapeutic outcomes. – PubMed – NCBI. online Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964640 Accessed 29 Dec. 2017.6. PharmaFactz. (2018). Medicinal Chemistry of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics. online Available at: https://pharmafactz.com/medicinal-chemistry-of-beta-lactam-antibiotics/ Accessed 4 Jan. 2018.7.Healthline. (2017). Amoxicillin vs. Penicillin. online Available at: https://www.healthline.com/health/infection/amoxicillin-vs-penicillin#basic-features Accessed 29 Dec. 2017.8.Markel, D. and Markel, D. (2017). The real story behind penicillin. online PBS NewsHour. Available at: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/the-real-story-behind-the-worlds-first-antibiotic Accessed 29 Dec. 2017.9.Penicillin: The Turning Point of Medicine. (2017). Penicillin: Economic Impact. online Available at: http://penicillinhistoryfair2013.weebly.com/economic-impact.html Accessed 29 Dec. 2017.10. Nobelprize.org. (2017). Sir Alexander Fleming – Photo Gallery. online Available at: https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1945/fleming-photo.html Accessed 29 Dec. 2017.11. Nlm.nih.gov. (2017). How did they make penicillin?. online Available at: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/fromdnatobeer/exhibition-interactive/illustrations/penicillin-alternative.html Accessed 29 Dec. 2017.12. Bioweb.uwlax.edu. (2017). Neisseria Meningitidis. online Available at: http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2008/bingen_sama/ Accessed 31 Dec. 2017.13. Cdc.gov.tw. (2004). ???????Neisseria meningitidis??????. online Available at: http://www.cdc.gov.tw/downloadfile.aspx?fid=3CFC59488509EB9A Accessed 3 Jan. 2018.14. Zh.wikipedia.org. (2018). ???. online Available at: https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%9D%92%E9%9C%89%E7%B4%A0 Accessed 3 Jan. 2018.15. News-Medical.net. (2018). ?????. online Available at: https://www.news-medical.net/health/Penicillin-Mechanism-(Traditional-Chinese).aspx Accessed 3 Jan. 2018.16. Zhidao.baidu.com. (2017). ??????????. online Available at: https://zhidao.baidu.com/question/558279767.html?qbl=relate_question_0 Accessed 3 Jan. 2018.17. Wwwu.tsgh.ndmctsgh.edu.tw. (2018). ??????????. online Available at: http://wwwu.tsgh.ndmctsgh.edu.tw/NICC/NEWS/10212%E6%84%9F%E6%8E%A7%E5%9C%92%E5%9C%B0-%E8%AA%8D%E8%AD%98%E6%B5%81%E8%A1%8C%E6%80%A7%E8%85%A6%E8%84%8A%E9%AB%93%E8%86%9C%E7%82%8E.pdf Accessed 3 Jan. 2018.18. En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Beta-lactam. online Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-lactam Accessed 4 Jan. 2018.