According experts’ comments and suggestions to improve

According to Oppenheim (2000), questionnaire is an effective instrument to elicit information or phenomenon that can not be observed easily, such as opinions, attitudes, beliefs, and motivations (as cited in Yang, 2017). In this study, the researcher wants to understand students’ perception of the new approach. Considering that it will not be practical to interview every single student in the experimental group, a questionnaire is constructed to gather wanted information regarding students’ perception. The construction of this questionnaire is based on a review of the related previous studies, research purposes and research questions of the study, and the questionnaire used in need analysis in chapter one, the statement of the problem section. The questionnaire for need analysis follows what Yang had used to gather information about subjects’ attitudes and beliefs for her thesis in 2017 (Yang, 2017). The questionnaire for eliciting students’ perception of the pedagogic intervention consists of two part. Part one is students’ background information and part two students’ perception of the intervention. Students’ background information includes age, gender, the amount of time spent in English speaking learning every week outside the classroom, and their scores for General English in last term’ final exam. Students’ perception of the intervention includes 10 items regarding their opinions, attitudes, and how they perceive the intervention in the form of 5-point Likert scale questions. The degrees of the 5 points range from “strongly agree”, “agree”, “undecided “, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree”, accordingly assigned from a score of 5 points to 1 point. The questionnaire was sent to 3 experts who have experience in EFL speaking research and questionnaire design to check the content validity and language efficiency of all items. Some revise had been done based on the experts’ comments and suggestions to improve quality of the questionnaire. The researcher took suggestion from the experts and added a Chinese version of the questionnaire to make the students understand better. Both of Chinese version and English version of the questionnaire will be administered to the students after the experiment. Students can choose to fill in either of them for their convenience. In that case, a pilot of the questionnaire will not be necessary.   3.4.5 semi structured interview The nature of closed-ended questionnaire render it impossible for the researcher to gather in-depth information from the respondents. To make up for disadvantages brought from the closed-ended questionnaire, 10 planned guiding questions were constructed based on the above questionnaire to gather information from students and the teacher respectively in the form of semi-structured interview. Semi-structured interview is a method used to collect data which allows new ideas and questions to be brought up during the process of interview under the researcher’s framework of a set of planned guiding questions (Edwards & Holland, 2013; Seliger & Shohamy, 1989). In accordance with research purposes and research questions, and the questionnaire mentioned above, the researcher developed 10 planned guiding questions for semi-structured interview with students, and another 10 planned guiding questions for the semi-structured interview with the teacher. The interview will be conducted after the experiment and after administration of the questionnaire. 3.4.6 scale of students’ learner autonomy One of the main features of the study is the attempt to help students construct their own autonomous personal learner environment. Moreover students’ sense of learner autonomy is one of the dependent variables for the current study. As a result, the development of a scale to measure students learner autonomy development will be necessary to collect data that is able to answer the research questions. However, even though a great deal of attention has been given to learner autonomy in higher education, there is a lack of brief psychometrically sound measures of autonomous learning (Macaskill & Taylor, 2010). To bridge the gap, Macaskill and Taylor (2010) developed a short and sound measure for autonomous learning based on a 12 item scale. All the 12 items they used to develop the measure have a high degree of validity. Therefore, a scale with 12 items to measure students’ learner autonomy development during the experiment was developed based on the adaptation of Macaskill and Taylor’s work.   3.5 Pedagogic procedure In this section, pedagogic procedure will be introduced in order to show a big picture of students’ learning process, classroom activities during the whole experiment. There are three main parts in this section. This first one will be the training on using technology products to father information and resources for English speaking learning. The second one is detailed procedure for the first English speaking lesson in the first week. The third one is the emphasis of the evolving connection between each week and each lesson. At the very beginning, before the first English speaking class is started, a training class (in Chinese) of 90 minutes will be provided to the students, demonstrating the ways to make use of mobile phones, laptops, computers, these kinds of technology device to locate and get access to different sources of information and raising students’ awareness of TELL. During the training class, a resource sharing platform would be created for the students to share resources they gather to solve the real world like problems in the sequential role play game and share learning experience through a small report every week after an English speaking lesson is over. The platform could also function as a place to communicate and negotiate the plot development among the students. The teacher will be inside the platform too, offering help or giving suggestion when the students ask for it. Week 1 (the first English speaking class) Step 1? Before the first class begins, the students would receive some main plots modified from contemporary real world events accompanied with detailed introduction of the sequential role play game that they are going to play for a period of 12 weeks as well as some very general suggestions for developing the plots. The sequential role play game will be introduced to the students when they are informed about the experiment. However, here introduce the game again just to make sure that the students understand well what they are going to do in the whole experiment. At the same time, they will be assigned different roles, such as graduating students who are really trying to find a job, staffs of different positions in Wanda, staffs of different positions in Huawei, different teachers in the university, flexible roles (roles that will change in every lesson according to the plot development. Students who are assigned with a certain role would need to play the same role in every lesson to interact with different plots. Students who are assigned flexible roles would need to play different roles in every lesson according to the need of plot development). Step 2?When the lesson begins, in the first 45 minutes, the students need to gather information about how their assigned roles should act respectively, what should they talk about, who should they talk to, what should they prepare in order to play the game along with the main plots, at anywhere within the 45mins (they don’t necessarily go to the classroom), by using the technology products that they can access, like computer, laptop, mobile, etc. The logic of letting the students use their own technology products instead of the computer lab in the college is to encourage and develop students’ learner autonomy, since these technology products are available to the students basically whenever and wherever they need them to assist learning. They will need to evaluate the information on their own and then make decision which resource/resources to use and how to use it/them based on their evaluation. With their self-made decision, they may need to discuss among themselves through Internet or face-to-face about how they are going to act and which role/roles they are going to interact with, to negotiate among each other and make a big picture of who should be interacting with whom, just so as to avoid having somebody left with nobody to act and talk with. All these will happen within the first 45 minutes. Step 3?When the first 45 minutes is ended, the students need to appear in the classroom during the 10 minutes break. This could be considered as the preparation phase. Step 4?When the second 45 minutes starts, students start to play their roles, act and talk as they like, trying to behave like his/her assigned role on the basis of the resources they gather. The teacher would maintain the environment, walk around the classroom to offer some help if necessary. step 5?When second 45 minutes is ended, the students are required to upload the information(could be speech video, website link, online lecture, online news, or the pictures of any other resources in non-digital form, etc.) they used in the resource sharing platform and write a small report for it, regarding basic introduction, and why they would choose to use it, where and how they find it. The teacher will give comments on students’ classroom performance gently and generally as well as on the resources students find and the ways they find them, he may also give suggestions on how to improve their performance and their efficiency in finding high quality resources needed (via the platform). Week 2 Step 1: When the first 45 minutes begins, each student plans on how should he/she act to develop the plots happen in week 1 and gather resources for the development. Students would need to discuss among themselves as well, so that they can make a agreement on how to develop the plots in general and who should be interacting with whom. Step 2: Students appear in the classroom during the 10 minutes break. Step 3: Students act and play their roles on the basis of week 1′ development, the resources they find and their discussion. Step 4: Students upload resources they find and use in the platform, teacher may comment on their performance or their preparation work in the platform as well. Week 3 to week 12 Keep repeating the procedure in week two every week until week 12 which is the last week/lesson in the experiment. Let the sequential role play game develop naturally with students’ involvement and interaction. It should be noted that the role of the native speaker teacher in this experiment is purely a facilitator. He will be presented in the resource sharing platform and be ready to offer help when necessary in the first 45 minutes when the students are trying to gather information and resources for the following sequential role play game. In the second 45 minutes when the students arrive at the classroom and play the sequential role play game, he will be in the classroom too and walk around to keep the game going smoothly as well as offer help when necessary.   3.6 Data collection procedure General procedure: The research will be conducted in a normal English Speaking Course for a Chinese college, with two intact classes of students participated in the study and assigned as the experience group and the control group respectively. The experiment will last 12 weeks. It is expected to be conducted from the first English Speaking lesson to the 12th lesson in the second term of the subjects’ first academic year (around March to June in 2018). The main focus of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a Rhizomatic TELL Approach to the teaching and learning of English speaking, and the development of learner autonomy as well as information literacy. As mentioned earlier, there will be no fixed textbooks for English Speaking Course in the current research context. The teacher who is responsible for teaching English speaking and involved in the study is a native speaker of English from America.  


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