Abstract: but also for communication, it is used

Abstract: Islamic boarding school forced the students to stay in the boarding school
area and speak English (L3) to be practiced in their daily life. That is why,
it is important to know their attitude toward the language because attitude is
known as essential factor affecting language performance. This study is
purposed to know the students’ attitude toward L1, L2, and L3 related with
their language practice in their daily life. The aim of this research is also
to get information about students’ attitude and their achievement in English.
This research is using mix-method approach.The technique of collecting data is questioner,
interview and students’ score document. After conducting the research, the
writer got the data which showed students have positive attitude toward
L1,L2,L3 in term of three aspects, using L2/L3 for their language practice. The
last, there is a
correlation between students’ attitude and their achievement with a significance test 0.532 level.

Keyword: students’
attitude, language practice, students’ achievement

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1.      Introduction

In Indonesia, English is not used only for the certain purpose but also
for communication, it is used as the national language as well as the lingua
franca. English can be defined as a language which is adopted for
communication. To be fluently in English is a key success of life because to
link up the people from all around the world to share information. That’s why,
English should be taught in the school as a foreign language. (Shams, 2008) defines some factors
which can influence the learning process in English as Foreign language, such
as motivation, learning achievement and attitude. Moreover, learner’s attitude
is one of the most important factors that impact on learning language.

According to (Latchanna, 2009), attitude is about beliefs
and feelings which has been known as one of the important factors in learning
foreign language. Moreover, (Kara, 2009)
stated that attitude toward learning has an impact on students’ behavior and
their performance. In other words, positive
attitude facilitate students on language learning. If students do not have the
interest in acquiring target language, this student will have a negative
attitude and will not be enthusiastic in learning language. Thus,
learners’ attitudes could integrate in language learning because it gives
impact on their performance in acquiring the target language. This study looks
for the concept of attitude as one of the affective factors for success in
learning a foreign language. More specifically, it investigates in MACI Amanatul Ummah Surabaya.

MACI Amanatul Ummah Surabaya is an Islamic boarding school in Surabaya.
It has an educational aim to prioritized English as foreign language to be used
in their daily life. They have different English learning system. Students are
not only expected to come to the class but they have to learn English all day
both inside and outside the class. They are forced to stay in their dormitory
at the school area and speak English to communicate with others. 

Many studies have been conducted to explore the students’ attitudes towards
learning foreign language in general. For instance (Shams, 2008) conducted a study to
examine students’ attitudes, motivation and anxiety toward learning English.
The result found that students have positive attitude and high enthusiasm
towards English which emphasize on the use of English in social environment.
Secondly,(Gitawaty, 2010) also stated that
there is a correlation between students’ attitude and their achievement in
learning English. From those previous studies above, it
showed that attitude is related to
learning and it will affect learning.

Therefore, the
researcher expects to fill a gap, Do
the students who have positive attitude will implement their positive acts
toward English in their daily life? Or do they do the opposite. Because of this
reason, this study was aimed to identify how is the students’ attitude toward
L1, L2 and L3 and their language practices outside the school hours. It will
also describe in depth the correlation between their language attitude and
their achievement in learning English. The researcher addressed the following
research questions:

How is the
students’ attitude toward L1 L2 L3?

What is their
language used out of school hours in relation to their attitude?

Is there any
correlation between their language attitudes in their learning achievement?

This paper contains of five chapters, chapter I is
introduction, it covers about general background, previous studies, research gap
and research problem. Chapter II talks about the literature review. Chapter III
describes the method and methodology which is used in conducting the research.
It covers the research design, participants, instrument, data collection
technique, and data analysis. The researcher will describe them one by one.
Chapter IV is about result and discussion. Chapter V is conclusion of the





2.      Theoretical

2.1  Language

Language is a part of human life that cannot be separated. Language is
the most important thing for communication (Whatmough, 1957). They use language
to express their thought and communicate with others. It means that language
play an important role in our life. It has meaning which is able to be
expressed by thoughts about what somebody needs.

Language consists of information which can be accepted by the speaker and
the receiver. It can be concluded that language is important because it is as a
tool to communicate and understand one another.


2.2  Attitude
and Language Attitude

Attitude is an expression toward person, event, thing or place. (Rasyid, 2015) defines attitude is
a way of thinking or behaving towards someone or something. It can be said that
attitude is response toward something. Attitude is measurable; it also can be
change which gave an influence of the person’s emotion and behavior. If the
students have a positive attitude, it becomes the good first step for teaching
and learning process.

According to (Ahmadi, 2009) there are three
components or aspects of attitude. These components are:

Cognitive component.

It deals with the way
people think, so it is about beliefs or thought toward something. For instance:
their understanding in the process of language learning.

Affective component.

It refers to the
emotional of attitudes; emotions are linked with the object. It can be pleasant
or unpleasant toward something.

For instance: students express
whether they like or dislike the situation or materials of teaching learning

3.      Behavior

It involves about one
of tendency towards the object. It deals with the students’ skill.

For instance: it is
about the way someone reacts toward reaction.



2.3  L1
, L2, L3

L1 is known as a
mother tongue, it is the first language that we learn when we are a baby. In
Indonesia context, L1 defines as language from the ethnic minority. For
instance, people in east java has Javanese as their L1, people in West Java has
Sudanese as their L1, etc. 

Language that
learners learn when they have acquired their mother tongue – or first language
(L1) – is known as second language (L2) and in this term L2 can be define as
Bahasa Indonesia as the official and national language. For the target language
or foreign language (L3) refers to English as an international language. Many
people believe that learning English will provide more opportunities for
socio-economic bene?ts (Kirkpatrick, 2010). Thus, in educational context for
some institution, students are expected master English well.

2.4  Students’

Achievement is the students’ ability after he
received a learning experience. Students’ achievement are changed include the
area of cognitive, affective and psychomotor (Sudjana, 2005). Moreover, (King, 1998) stated that
achievement is known as students’ energy when they bring to school to make
progress in their learning achievement. In other words, achievement deals with
students’ behavior in their knowledge, skill and attitude in learning after
they involve in teaching learning process.

3.      Methodology

In this chapter, the researcher describes the method and methodology
which is used in conducting the research. It covers the research design,
participants, instrument, data collection technique, and data analysis. The
researcher will describe them one by one.

Research design 

This research was conducted Explanatory mixed methods design. The process
was done through the quantitative and then qualitative data. According to
Tashakkori&Teddlie (2003) defined mixed method is a type of research design
in which quantitative and qualitative data are used to answer the research
question. This study is explanatory mix method research because the researcher
needs to describe how the students’ attitude toward L1 L2 L3, the students’
language practice and the correlation between attitude and students’
achievement. In conclusion, the researcher considered explanatory mixed method
research was appropriate for this research.



The population
of this research was the students at MA-CI Amanatul Ummah. There were twenty
students in every class then the researcher took one class and described how
their attitude toward L1 L2 L3 ; The language used and the correlation with
their achievement.



First, a questionnaire is research instruments
consist of some questions which are used to gather the information from
respondents. According to (Ary, 2002) there are two kinds
of questionnaire, (1) the structured questionnaire provides both questions and
answers, the respondent should choose which represent their opinion. (2) The
unstructured questionnaires. The respondents have to elaborate their beliefs
and suggestions using their own words. This study used structured
questionnaire. The questionnaire was adopted from Attitude Questionnaire Test
employed by BCEA (Behavior, Cognitive, Emotional, Attitude) as cited in (Abidin, 2012)

Second are interview guidelines. Interview
guidelines contains several question addressed to the learners. Those questions
are related to the learners. Those questions are about what their language used
out of the school hour in relation to their attitude.

Third, a documentary study was taken from the
students’ speaking score in final test at the first semester from the teacher
to know about students’ achievement in English to be analyzed.

Data Collection

First, Questionnaire is used to know how the students’ attitude toward
L1, L2, L3. The questionnaire used in the study contains 45 items concerning
language attitudes in terms of behavioral (the first 5 items), cognitive (the
second 5 items), and emotional (the third 5 items) aspects of attitude toward
L1 L2 and L3. Overall, some items were positive and negative. The statements
were put in a five-point Likert scale from Level 1: Strongly Disagree to Level
5: Strongly Agree.

Second, interview was used to answer the second research question which
deals with their language used out of the school hour in relation to their
attitude. The students who were interviewed was chosen randomly based on their
English competence, higher competence and lower competence. The categorization
was based on their score.

Third, a documentary study which is taken from the students’ speaking
score is collected to be analyzed by using correlation analysis.

Data Analysis

In analyzing
the data, there are some steps below:

First, The
data which is related to know how the students’ attitude toward L1, L2, L3,
will be got from questionnaire consisting of 15 items showing cognitive,
behavioral, and emotional aspects of attitude toward L1, L2 and English as L3.
The researcher will analyze based on analysis of a questionnaire and describes
the result in the form of percentage and table.

Second, the
data collections of the interview about the students’ language use out of the
school were transcribed.

Third, to
analyze the relationship between students’ attitude and students’ achievement,
the researcher used Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis. The researcher
used bivariate correlations to analyze data. Finally, SPSS software was used and
Here the simple interpretation of bivariate correlation

Interpretation of Correlation



0.00 – 0.20

There is correlation between X variable and Y
it  is  very 
weak  or  very 
low.  So  the 
correlation  is
rejected. In other words, there is no correlation
X variable and Y variable

0.20 – 0.40

is  a  weak 
or  low  correlation 
between  X  variable
and Y variable but it is sure

0.40 – 0.70

There is an enough correlation between X variable
and Y

0.70 – 0.90

There is a strong or high correlation between X
and Y variable

0.90 – 1.00

There is a very strong or very high correlation
between X
variable and Y variable


Last, the data
was interpreted and made conclusion about the result of the study.      







4.      Result

4.1  Result
of Students’ Attitude toward L1, L2, L3

Concerning the ?rst research question, the result of descriptive analysis
shows that the overall percentage of Students’ attitude toward three languages,
L1 as their mother tongue, L2 (Bahasa Indonesia) and L3 (English) can be seen
from the table below:









When I hear a friend in my speaking class  L1/L2/L3 well, I like to practice talking
with him

31 %




Learning L1/L2/L3 helps me improve my personality


I like to practice L1/L2/L3 as do native speakers


I do not relax when I have to speak L1/L2/L3


I feel shy to speak English in front of other students.



The L1/L2/L3 subject has content that covers many areas of knowledge

31 %




In my opinion, people who speak more than one language have a very
wide knowledge


I have more knowledge and more understanding when learning to use


I learned English just to pass the exam


I cannot apply L1/L2/L3 conversations in everyday life



I prefer to learn my native language rather than other foreign





I feel proud while studying L1/L2/L3


I do not feel anxious when I have to answer questions in L1/L2/L3


Learning foreign languages ??is enjoyable


Learning English makes me feel more confident



of students stated that they like to learn English especially in the way a
native speaker does. They also interest to learn different L1 (mother tongue)
with their friends for instance like studying about Javanese, Sudanese because
of its unique. It can be seen from the percentage 32% for L1 and L2.  Meanwhile, for learning L2 (Bahasa), the
score got the lowest score between L1 and L2 (28%) because they think that
acquiring bahasa indonesia as a second language can be done unconsciously. They
prefer to learn various languages which have not been known yet.  However, 
it  can be  said 
that  the students  have 
positive  behavioral  attitudes 
toward L1 and English language. In other words, they hope they can use
English and L1 in outside school hours.


attitudes toward learning L1/L2/L3 are shown in the statements 11–15. The
result showed students’ positive and negative with the percentage for them are
L1 (32%), L2 (35%), L3 (31%).  Most of
the students stated that they enjoy learning L1, L2, and English. All students
agree that they will give some information and will be more understanding when
they learn L1, L2 and English. It can be seen from the result if the students
recognize the importance of learning L1, L2, and L3 for communicating actively.
It can be stated that students have positive cognitive attitudes toward L1, L2
and L3.


percentage for the emotional aspects are L1 (36%), L2 (37%) , L3 (37%) which
means that most students have good emotions/feelings. They will be more proud,
and having self esteem toward L2 (Bahasa Indonesia) and L3 (English) rather
than their L1 , but it still concerns that studying L1  is 
enjoyable  and  interesting 
for  them. In conclusion, most of
them showed good and positive emotions/feelings to learning L1, L2 and L3.

4.2  Result
of Students’ Language Practice (outside the school hours)







Which languages do you like more, L1, L2 or L3?

Honestly, I prefer to choose English
that I like most because by mastering English well we can communicate with
many people in the world.

English because sometimes we look cool
when speak English

Actually I like English and Arabic because help me
to speak with foreign people


Which language is easier? L1,L2,L3?

Of course it is my mother tongue,
because I can speak it without learning

BahasaIndonesia , because I am from
Java so my mother tongue is Javanese and it has different structure for
different people. So bahasa Indonesia is easiest one. And English is quite

Bahasa Indonesia because we use it in
learning process every day.


What language do you usually use outside the school hours?

Sometimes English, sometimes bahasa.
We are forced to speak English rather than bahasa but If I confused and there
is no ustazd/ustadzah who look at me, I prefer to use bahasa with my friend

Honestly bahasa, because it is really
difficult to speak English. If no one knows I used bahasa but if I speak with
ustad/ustadzah sometimes I used English

Bahasa , because when I try to speak English all the time sometimes
my friend tease me by saying “gayamuinggrisan”. So if there is no teacher I
speak bahasa


Where do you usually use English outside the school hours?

When I am in school like in the
musholla, canteen and corridor of this Islamic boarding school

In the classroom, in the canteen

Sometimes everywhere


To whom do you usually use English?

My ustad/ustadzah and my roommate

My roommate, my teacher

All friends and teachers

The interview result was taken from the students’ level which can be seen
from their achievement in English conversation class. The Result establishes
the finding that the students were interested to use English in their daily
life especially outside the school hours. However, most of them use English if
there is a teacher (ustad/ustadzah) around them. If there is no teacher
(ustad/ustadzah), they prefer to choose Bahasa to communicate with others
secretly.  It means that, although they
have a positive attitude toward English their acts do the opposite which can be
seen from their daily life of how they implement their attitude toward English.

4.3  Result
of The Correlation between Students’ Attitude and Students’ Achievement

The researcher took the score of students’ attitude (variable X) by  using 
15  items  questionnaire toward L3 (English) and  students’ 
learning  achievement (variable Y)
by using conversation English scores in final test at the first semester and
those scores were analyzed.

To know whether
there is any significant correlation or not between X variable and Y variable,
the researcher formulated HI (Alternative Hypothesis) and Ho (Null Hypothesis)
first as follows:

Ha  :  “there is a positive correlation which
significant between X variable (attitude) and Y variable (learning

Ho  :  “there is no positive correlation which
significant between X variable (attitude) and Y variable (learning

assumptions are as follows:

a)      If
the result of calculation rxy is smaller than Tt (t table),  rxyTt: so the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected (Ha is

the calculation correlation above, the researcher got the result from rxy=0.532
(it is between 0.40-0.70). According to the simple interpretation, there is an
enough correlation between X variable and Y variable. Thus, we can know that
there is a positive correlation between attitude (as X variable) and learning
achievement (as Y variable).

know the test Hypothesis, After calculating rxy, the result of rxy is 0.532. The
researcher decides:

of freedom (df) to get Tt  (T

= N-nr = 20–2 = 18.

looking at the table, df (18) get significance 5 % is 0.468 and get
significance 1% is 0.590. because it is in term of education, the researcher
look at significance 5% and concluded that rxy is bigger than tt or rxy>tt =
0.532> 0.468, so that the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected (Ha is accepted).

the statement above, the researcher can interpret the data that there is a
positive correlation between attitudes as X variable and learning achievement
as Y variable. From the calculation of Pearson’s Product moment, the researcher
got the result from rxy=0.532. According to the simple interpretation, we know
that there is a positive and significant correlation between X variable
(attitude) and Y variable (learning achievement).

5.      Discussion

From the finding, we know that most of students have more positive
attitude toward learning English in all three aspects. Those are behavior,
cognitive and emotional. This finding was in line with (Shams, 2008) and (Kara, 2009) in which the
students have positive attitude and become a good first step to learn in
teaching learning process. However, students who have a positive attitude do
the opposite of their language practice in their daily life. It can be seen
from their attitude when outside the school hour, the students have to speak
English to communicate with others but they did not do that. Students will only
speak English outside the school hour if there is a teacher around them. If
there is not, they prefer to use L2 (Bahasa).

Moreover, based on data analysis by SPSS, the correlation is significant
at the 0.532 level, it can be said that two variables between attitude and
learning achievement have a positive correlation in English. These findings are
in line with the reports given by (Gitawaty, 2010) who found that there
is strong correlation between students’ attitude and their achievement. Thus, students
who has negative attitude will get lower score in English achievement and
students with positive attitude get higher score in English achievement.

6.      Conclusion

Based on the discussion of students’ attitude toward L1 L2 L3 and their
language practice, the researcher will conclude as follows:

Based on the
result of questionnaire, students at MACI Amanatul Ummah Surabaya have a
positive attitude toward L1 as their mother tongue, L2 as Bahasa Indonesia, and
L3 as English. Among three languages, English got higher value in three aspects
(behavior, cognitive and emotional)

Based on the
results of interview, the students who has positive attitude toward English do
the opposite in their acts. They speak English outside the school hours to
communicate with other if there is teacher around them. If there is no teacher,
they prefer to use Bahasa (L2).

There is a
correlation between students’ attitude (X variable) and the students’
achievement (Y variable) with a significance
test 0.532 level.



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