Web is loaded with disjointed data bases which contains valuable data on a very
large scale. But this data remains on its own since there is very less data
sharing with each other. In this paper, I have elaborated the basics of web
services, existing failures of data integration due to lack of well-defined scheme,
SOA architecture with SOAP and REST protocols and how web services work and
what is contained in them I have also discussed the various defined integration
techniques of these webservices based on XML. I have also discussed how XML and
webservices have an upper hand in integration if we compare it with other
integration techniques available for this type of integration framework in
detail which is based on webservices and XML.
the last few decades, software complexity has increased up to that level where
software integration architectures must deal with very high level of
complexities. As the software becomes more and more complex the integration
remains a challenging task. While the industry constantly demands for more
efficient and reasonably cheaper source of data integration, traditional
approaches for does not completely supports the data integration up to a
satisfactory level. The industries of 21st century demands huge
enterprise integration because of which the industry has done through multiple
changes in its architecture to allow complete distributed processing. The
various programming languages are also made platform independent reducing
implementation hurdles. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is being constantly evolved in
the IT industry as the next era in software architecture to help IT
organizations meet their demands and complexities. CORBA (Common object request
broker architecture) was introduced and was doing a decent job integrating various
webservices. Later, when the number of Non- CORBA applications increased, it
became a serious issue in terms of integrating those since it was platform
dependent. This gave rise to service oriented architecture(SOA) which was
platform independent since XML was the medium in which the various services
used to exchange information. With XML being an interoperable language, it was
easy to integrate different webservices.
Now, let’s dive in to the various technical details to get the
complete understanding on the SOA architecture.
What is SOA – SOA stands for
service oriented architecture. It is basically collection of web services who
interact with each other and perform a well-defined operation. Let me explain
this with a concrete example. Assume there are 2 websites say American airlines
and United airlines. Both might differ with their price. As a user, we may have
to log on to each website individually and compare the prices. What if we
integrate these two websites and create third website which compares the prices
from these two websites and provides you with the integrated view of both the
websites. The individual web sites are known as the web services. We know that
webservices are self-contained. They are a complete application on their own
even if they are not integrated. SOA is made up of three components. (i)Producer
– one who makes the services (ii) consumer – one who uses that service. An
example would be the general population using it. (iii) Directory – It is a
repository where information about the different services which are integrated
are kept. The first company to roll out SOA was Hewlett Packard. But they
miserably failed due to very complex requirements from each service to
integrate them. A single web service is a combination of many technologies. It
includes XML – extensible markup language – It is markup language which is
written in a text format. WSDL – web service description language and UDDI –
universal description discovery and integration. UDDI is a registry, or we can
coin it as a book where services list themselves. It’s basically a common platform
which provides a common set of APIs’. WSDL is an XML based scheme which
describes the service. It provides an easier way to how to request and
responses of a scheme must be handled. There are number of similar web services
available in the market. If one must decide which service to use for
integration or in other words say one is getting confused in choosing between
two similar looking services, one has to look for its WSDL file. WSDL file of
that service will help to know what exactly in contained in that service. This
is will them to know whether that service is of their use or not. All the
modules of the service are described in its WSDL. Developers, while developing
an application also create its WSDL file. XML is that language which is
interoperable. It can run of multiple platforms irrespective of its operating
systems, programming languages in which the web service has been coded. This
makes it very easy for the developers to integrate the services. XML is that
language which can convert data from one language and can be used for the input
for another language. It doesn’t depend on the type of language in which the
services have been coded or on what platform does it work.
Below is the structure of how is service oriented architecture is designed.
It consists of service registry, service requester and service provider.
Service registry contains all the information of the services which a web
service can provide you with. Service provider is that module of SOA which
deals in proving you with the data. Here is the place from where data is being accessed.
Service requester is always the client accessing that service. The webservices
interact with the help of mediator language which here is XML. There is a
binding factor between the service requester and service provider above which
the SOAP. The exchange of messages happens following some set of rules which is
defined by the SOAP.
INTEGRATION USING XML AND WEB SERVICES
As we already know that XML forms the base of a web service. We
can say that, in a way that it is a successor of HTML. HTML uses tags and we
need to follow a structure to write a script using HTML which makes it hard for
its use. XML on the other hand is uses tags for representing any data. There
are pre-defined tags for HTML where as in XML you can create your own tags
which makes it extremely easy. The data which is being used by the client need
not to be copied in the central system. Data persists in its own data base and
fetched on real time when a request come from the user or source. When the user
executes a query, the data from all the relevant/integrated sources are taken
are exchanged via message communicating protocols and the real-time data is
retrieved and presented to the client. If the new services are added which
might be of completely different platform, the whole structure of the
application need not to be changed. Bases on the XML structure and its
definition, the added source can be easily integrated without any interruption
to the existing working functionalities. The data exchange functionality works
on XML. For exchange of messages between the services. Complete data sharing
and trade hidden usage and capacity components are straightforward to every
application hub, and effectively stretched out to progressive snowflake
structure to assemble a multi-level information trade focus, understand the
steering and information sending to help more prominent the wide zone organize
SOA aims at achieving a commercial objective:
information technology must become more profitable and must be further aligned
with business requirements.
By means of services, the focus of
information technology is directed in such way that the implementation of
requirements will be faster, more reliable, and more cost-efficient.
The technological field of Web Services is
the commonly the connection technology of service-oriented architectures. The above
figure illustrates a basic structure of service-oriented architecture. It displays
a service consumer at the right sending a service request message to a service
provider at the left. The service provider returns a response message to the
service consumer. The request and the response connections which was provided
are defined in some way that can be understand to both the service consumer and
service provider. The exchange of messages between them takes place using XML.A
service provider can also be termed as a service consumer.
SCOPE OF SOA:
When we deliver something very valuable
to our consumer, this is most like to turn into a benefit in return. This is
very true for service oriented architecture(SOA)
Follow standards given by the IT: IT systems at
times need to prove that they are following the standards completely which are
set. In this approach, SOA, behavior of SOA is known, and it is not possible to
Change management: When the services gets changed or modified, it becomes a difficult changing
a service often has unforeseen consequences as the service consumers are
unknown to the service providers. This makes an impact analysis for changing a
service more difficult than usual.
quality of services: The flexibility of SOA to add new
services requires extra attention for the quality of these services. This
concerns both the quality of design and the quality of service. As services
often call upon other services, one malfunctioning service can cause damage in
ADVANTAGES OF USING XML IN DATA INTEGRAION:
XML Web Services open valuable usefulness to Web clients through a
standard Web convention. Much of the time, the convention utilized is SOAP. XML
Web administrations give an approach to depict their interfaces in enough
detail to enable a client to construct a customer application to converse with
them. This depiction is normally given in a XML record called a Web Services
Description Language (WSDL) report. XML Web administrations are enrolled so
potential clients can discover them effortlessly. This is finished with
Universal Discovery Description and Integration (UDDI).
DESIGN OF THE FRAMEWORK:
The presented framework for integration comprises of various layers.
Each layer has its own specific functionality.
1.Web services layer: Before understanding the web service layer,
we must understand what web servers are and what are they capable of. Web
servers are built the handle the clients requests and respond back based on the
requests. The webservices are used to uniformly handle the XML data queries,
distribution and transaction processing for the client’s request.
2.Data Source layer: This is the place where data arrives for its generation
of the output. The data can be of anytime based on the service that web service
is handling. When the clients give the request, the system decides that from
which data source the requested data must be fetched. It is then, the request
is made to the respective data source.
3.Data Interface layer: All the major exchange which are performed
and handled by data interface layer. If the data coming from one web service and
getting transmitted into another web service are not in similar format or the XML
version differs from each other they are made similar and the exchange takes place.
change layer distinguishes the customer gadget sort through asking for of the
web server, and after that call the fitting arrangement converter to change
over XML information shaped in the framework to the fitting HTML and other
information positions, and after that send it to the customer through the Web
server. Since of the partition between the frame and substance, XML can release
the show type of the outside information in the configuration change layer, and
change over the information required getting into the trade framework to XML
and send it to the information control layer. Organization transformation layer
is proportional to a coordinated intermediary layer. All system customer
gadgets have their particular portrayal designs. Organization change layer
isolate frame furthermore, the genuine information and the information beneath
this layer are exhibited the unadulterated information XML record. We know the exchange
of messages takes place using XML since it is interoperable and supported on multiple
clients. Data control layer is a center of a brought together information trade
interface; it gets XML information through arrangement change, arranges and
handles these information, and after that sends it to the suitable exchange
module. After handling the information originating from the information trade
interface, the exchange module restores the outcomes in a XML archive to the
information trade interface. These XML-arranged outcomes will, as indicated by
their particular example, either come back to the customer, or are sent to
another exchange module for preparing. Information control layer ought to have
the capacity to recognize insightfully the XML data and change over the
different sorts of information records to the labeled XML archives can be
recognized and handled by the framework.
APPLICATION INVOLVED IN THE NEWLY PRESENTED INTEGRATION PLATFORM:
– To synchronize the services in detail to the main database by
calling Web Services data synchronization interfaces of the data integration
stage in every operation of the sub-center.
– To communicate the unit data and individual account data and
other data between the focuses what’s more, sub-center.
– If there are two systems which are running on different
platforms, to coordinate the data exchange process between from different
modules of the system.
Now, that we have discussed how the integration work, let us jump
into the design specifications of the system. Basically, the complete system
has been divided into three parts. They are as follows:
1.Central data base system: It is that
place where the data for all the exchange that has happened are stored. It acts
like a main database or we can say it is a main data like a central server.
2.Data Integration platform system: To communicate with other services available and
various single accounts, it is this module or platform where the real-time
exchange of data takes place.
3.Sub centers business system: It refers to the sub module from
where the request is sent. The data which is sent is then transferred to data integration
platform and the exchange take place to and from the central server.
The data integration
framework described above is the main module of the entire framework. These
have some several capacities. On the basis of their individual capabilities,
they are divided into data control subsystem, Unified access control subsystem and
the interface handling module. Data central system remains the main server where
data base combination happens.
In the wake of examining the plan usage, let
us now proceed onward to the framework execution and it a portion of the
In perspective of the
data exchange results of the data exchange arrange, the XML records are gotten
to highlight sharing substance of hold data which each sharing substance being
packaged into a XML compose record. The necessities on the XML arrange are: the
ace hub, sub-center point which is a record number, and the substance inside
the record number is the substance of everything of information hubs for
instance: xml version="1.0" encoding="ABCD"?>
The XML game-plan is do. The XML strategy of the basic substance
is given, on the introduction of which, the taking a gander at XML Schema
outline of the structure can be conveyed, that is, the difference in PC
information trade make standard, which is in the province of XSD archive. The
data contained in the XML, which is predictable with the noteworthiness of this
graph, meets the necessities of information trade on what’s to come. This
method can be made physically or regularly conveyed by the gadget. The asserted
real of the OO things and XML challenge if to change over between the XML
question and information difference of java program. After the age of the XSD
parsing position record, the world class XML-Java limiting instrument—MLBean is
used to tie XML difference and OO question.
3. Web Services
Hosting: After the program and the total of all Java classes, we can make Web
Services Servlet-based applications by utilizing Hub that is the Web Services scatter.
Regularly utilized Java combined change condition Eclipse, JBuilder and Net
Bean give a visual Web Services progress.
Now that we know and have a good
idea about XML and web services based data integration. We can take our
learning one step ahead and can transform into some machine learning techniques.
We all know that machine learning and artificial intelligence is going to be
the next big market capturing and making its mark in almost every fields. For now,
let’s try to bring that here in my paper. At very many points, human intervention is required
which can definitely be decreased if we can implement the XML conversion and
very many complex phases through machine learning algorithms. Let me explain you this by giving an
example technique, (Multidimensional Learning Objects and Measured Lectures
Markup Language) allows us to characterize very different components regard to
given qualities so as to present them in a multidimensional question on a practically
higher level. The biggest advantage of this multidimensional concept is that all
the learning objects can be completed either by pre-feeding them with the data or
by implementing the learning algorithms in which in due course of time it
automatically and gradually picks up what on how XML schemas can be converted
from one form to another to lessen the human intervention. I know this implementation
looks might look big because machine learning is very vast field. But I am sure
this idea of mine, if not completely, will surely work up to a certain extent
where we can implement machine learning algorithms and reduce the human
intervention up to minimum and speed up the process of web service integration using
the same set of protocols like SOAP and REST.
We know that that using web
services has very many advantages. Web services are cross platforms. With the
previous implementation, the firewall was preventing the connection and was
acting a hinderance. Another main advantage of using web services are that they
are based on XML. XML being an extremely interoperable. I discussed the various
basic concepts of SOAP, SOA. Gradually, we addressed the problems of the
existing approaches and how can those problems be solved by using of XML. I
explained a very concrete example of the dynamic e -business module and very
many challenges associated with it. We discussed an integration framework with
the in-detail explanation of its architecture and various layers and sub systems
involved in it.