Abstract days felicitous curing and moisture contents and

Abstract — The properties of
concrete like strength and durability highly affected by curing since it is
achieved by hydration of cement. Normally curing is done by conventional curing
method, conventional curing refers to no loss of moisture on surface by using
of water. Conventional curing is found to difficult and costly for the
construction in desert areas, highly elevated structures, construction near
marine etc. By these problems internal curing is adopted in place of
conventional curing.  Due to advancement
of technology construction industry have various internal curing method like
Membrane curing compounds, self curing, water proofing agents etc. In this
review paper the effort has been made to understand the self curing and its
method like adding , light weight aggregate, silica fume, wooden powder, super
absorbent polymer, and shrinkage reducing admixture (Polyethylene Glycol etc.)
in concrete.

 

Keywords – Conventional
curing, Self curing, Super Absorbent Polymer, Silica Fume, Shrinkage Reducing
Admixture, Light Weight Aggregate, Light Expanded Clay Aggregate.

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I.                   
INTRODUCTION

 

 

Curing designates
maintain the wetness and dampness of the concrete while the cement reactions
make concrete harden and get strength. Curing are generally divided in two
methods namely, water integrating technique (external curing) and water
retaining technique (internal curing). Concrete take their design strength with
minimum 28 days felicitous curing and moisture contents and constant
temperature. Without ample supply of moisture the calcareous compound of cement
in concrete will not compose the deign strength of concrete. Drying by sun,
wind, sultriness and other factors may abstract the water which is utilized in
chemical reaction is kenned as Hydration and the concrete will not reach their
desirable properties. Evaporation in primary stage will cause the plastic
shrinkage cracking and in final stage it make drying shrinkage cracking. AS per
ACI-308 Code “internal curing refers to the process by which the hydration of
cement occurs because of the availability of supplemental internal water that
is not a component of the commixing Water.”Sometimes in the surface curing
water cannot enter in the core of concrete due to less permeability of concrete
and heavy hydration reactions. In that condition we can use the water retaining
technique like self curing for internal curing. As per IS 456:2000 “Mixing or
curing of concrete with sea water is not recommended because of presence of
harmful salts in sea water”1 hence construction at  marine areas where potable water is available
in less quantity then internal curing is the way to achieve the desirable
strength.

 

 

 

 

 

These are some material can be
utilized as self curing agents

 

A.      Light Weight
Aggregate (LWA)

B.       Silica Fume

C.       Light Expanded
Clay Aggregate(LECA)

D.      Fly Ash

E.       Shrinkage
reducing admixture (SRA)

a.       
Polyethylene
Glycol-400 (PEG-400)

b.       
Polyethylene
Glycol-600 (PEG-600)

c.       
Polyvinyl
Acrylic Acid (PVA)

F.       Super Absorbent
polymer (SAP)

a.       
Sodium
polyacrylate

b.       
Slush
powder

                These
are self curing Agents which may use separate, either cumulating of two or
coalescence of three.

 

 

II.                 
LITERATURE REVIEW

 

Ø Dayalan
J and Buellah. M (2014) carried the work on LWA. The
shrinkage is averted by utilizing of light weight aggregate. Pre-wetted LWA
store water as reservoirs which may release water when requires. LWA is
additionally averting the acid attack. As compare to plain concrete LWA
concrete gives 20% more compressive strength. 2

 

Ø Patel
Manishkumar Dahyabhai and Prof. Jayesh kumar R. Pitroda (March 2014)
state that 1% dose of PEG of cement gives maximum compressive strength for M-25
grade concrete. The self curing is best approach for water lack areas.3

 

Ø Vivek
Hareendran et. Al (April 2014)  studies on Experimental investigation on
strength aspects of internal curing concrete utilizing super absorbent polymer
and conclude that 0.35% super absorbent polymer increase the maximum
workability and maximum compressive strength for M-50 grade concrete. 4

 

Ø Mr.
Sanjay raj A and Yogananda N (2014) state that
supersession of 15% manufactured sand gives 9% increase the compressive
strength for M9 grade. 5

 

Ø K.
Bala Subramanian et.al (2015) fixate on utilizing of super absorbing polymer
and verbalize the percentage increase of PEG increase the compressive strength
of concrete. The research verbalizes 0.4% of PEG gives more strength than that
with 0.2%, and 0.3%. 6

 

Ø Magda
I. Mousa et al (2015) found that 15% silica fume with 2% of polyethylene-glycol
gives better water retention as compare to conventional concrete. 15.8%
increase in compressive strength for the commix of 15% silica fume with 2% of
polyethylene-glycol. 7

 

Ø Anoop
KT and Dr. Sunilaa George (2015) studies in Strength Demeanor of Nylon Fiber
Concrete with Self Curing Agent and conclude that 0.4 % Sodium Polyacrylate by
weight of cement gives maximum compressive, split and flexural strength for
M-20  grade concrete, 0.5% Nylon
Fiber  ameliorate compressive strength as
compare to conventional concrete. By utilization of this concrete become
economical. 8

 

Ø R.Gopi
et. Al focused their research on utilization of Saturated Light Expanded Clay
Aggregate and Fly Ash Aggregate as Internal Curing Agents in Self Compacting
Concrete and found the amalgamation of 5% of LICA and 15% fly ash gives 28 days
maximum compressive strength. 9

 

Ø M.Srihari
and B.Karthick fixate on utilization of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) & Super
Absorbent Polymer (SAP) for M-25 grade concrete in different case. 1% of PEG
gives maximum strength. 0.3% SAP gives maximum strength. On the observation it
is found that Sap gives better result and it is economical. 10

 

Ø Daliya
Joseph and Belarmin Xavier (2016) make research on Effect of Self Curing Agents
on Mechanical Properties of Concrete and found increase of percentage of PEG
increase slump value. Waters cement ratio effect the strength of concrete in
self curing concrete. 11

 

Ø Vishnu
T and Beena B R (2016) found that  the
cumulation of 20% of light weight fine aggregate and 2% of poly ethylene glycol
increase 20% more Split Tensile Strength and Flexural Strength. 12

 

Ø Muddassir.
A. Bora et. Al (2017) found that 0.5% PEG -600 gives 7days and 28 days
compressive strength 27.55 N/mm2 and 35.55 N/mm2 respectively for M-20 grade
concrete. 13

 

Ø B.
Ajitha and Ghantasala Nirupama (2017) state that 0.24% PVA gives high flexural
strength 7.19 N/mm2  maximum 6.8 N/mm2
tensile  strengths for M-20 grade of
concrete.14

 

Ø Arya
Salimkumar and Biju Mathew (2017) works on Polypropylene fiber reinforced
concrete and found that  the flexural
strength of 9.46 MPa is obtained by supersession of 30% coarse aggregate by
water saturated cinder aggregates. 15

 

III.              
Conclusion

On the study of
Review paper, following conclusion are obtained:

·        
Problem
of shrinkage can be eliminating by the self curing.

·        
This
is new advancement in construction industry for water scare areas.

·        
The
optimum dosages of Super Absorbent Polymer and Shrinkage Reducing Admixture
make percentage increase in Compressive, tensile and flexural strength as
compare to conventional concrete.

·        
The
property of less permeability of concrete cannot be effected the hydration
process by self curing.

·        
Self
curing is economical as compare to conventional curing.

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

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REFERENCES

 

 

1.       
IS 456:2000 “Indian Standard
Specification for plain & Reinforced Concrete”- Code of Practice
(Fourth Revision) BIS New Delhi.

2.       
Dayalan J and Buellah. M, “Internal
Curing of Concrete Using Prewetted Light Weight Aggregates”, International
Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 3,
Issue 3, March 2014, 10554-10560.

3.       
Patel Manishkumar Dahyabhai and Prof.
Jayeshkumar R. Pitroda, “Introducing the Self-Curing Concrete in
Construction Industry”, International Journal of Engineering Research &
Technology (IJERT), Vol. 3 Issue 3, March – 2014, 1286-1289.

4.       
Vivek Hareendran, V. Poornima and G.
VelRajkumar, “Experimental investigation on strength aspects of internal
curing concrete using super absorbent polymer”, International Journal of
Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering Vol. 03, No. 02, April
2014, 134-137.

5.       
Mr. Sanjay raj A and Yogananda N, “Experimental
investigation on Self-Curing Self-Compacting
Concrete by Replacing Natural Sand by M-sand and
Coarse aggregates By Light Weight Aggregate
for M-40 Grade Concrete”,  International
Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 8, August
2014.

6.       
K. Bala Subramanian, A. Siva, S. Swaminathan and
Arul. M. G. Ajin, “Development of High Strength Self Curing Concrete Using
Super Absorbing Polymer”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and
Technology International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Vol: 9,
No: 12, 2015.

7.       
Magda I. Mousa, Mohamed G. Mahdy, Ahmed
H. Abdel-Reheem, and Akram Z. Yehia, “Self-curing concrete types; water
retention and durability”, Alexandria Engineering Journal (2015) 54,
565–575.

8.       
Anoop KT and Dr. Sunilaa George, “Strength Behavior of Nylon Fibre Concrete with Self Curing
Agent”, International Journal of Computer & Mathematical Sciences,
Volume 4, Issue 5 May 2015, 27-31.

9.       
R.Gopi, V.Revathi,  R.Ramya and K.Ramesh, ” Saturated Light
Expanded Clay Aggregate and Fly Ash Aggregate As Internal Curing Agents In Self
Compacting Concrete”
, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 9(31) September
2015, Pages: 226-233.

10.     M.Srihari
and B.Karthick, “Experimental Study on Behavior of Concrete Using Self
Curing Agents”, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES & RESEARCH
TECHNOLOGY, May, 2016, 443-449.

11.     Daliya
Joseph and Belarmin Xavier, “Effect of Self Curing Agents on Mechanical
Properties of Concrete”, International Journal of Engineering Research &
Technology (IJERT), Vol. 5 Issue 09, September-2016, 46-49.

12.     Vishnu T and
Beena B R, “An Experimental Investigation of Self-Curing Concrete
Incorporated with Light Weight Fine Aggregate and Polyethylene Glycol”, International
Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology| Volume 3 | Issue
04 | September 2016, 116-122.

13.     Muddassir.
A. Bora, Mausam. A. Vohra and  M. Sakil.
Patel, “Strength Properties of Concrete using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-600)”, International
Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 5, Issue 06, 2017,
456-457.

14.     B. Ajitha and
Ghantasala Nirupama, “Evaluation of Properties of Self
Curing Concrete by Using PolyVinyl Alcohol”, International
Journal of Advance Technology in Engineering & Science, Vol. 4 Issue 04,
752-758.

15.     Arya Salimkumar
and Biju Mathew, “An Investigation on the Properties of Self Curing
Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete”, International Research Journal
of Engineering and Technology, Volume: 04 Issue: 06, June -2017, 1767-1770.

 

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