JAPAN

 Japan has been through not one but 2 nuclear
bombings, after which most of its main cities, industries and transportation
networks were completely destroyed and by the end of August 1945 Japan had
surrendered unconditionally. Thus began the occupation and reformation of Japan,
which could be split into three phases: the reformation and punishment of
Japan, the revival of the Japanese economy, and the creation of a formal peace
treaty and alliance.

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Phase one
involved the most vital changes for Japan. War crime trials were held in Tokyo,
Meanwhile, the Japanese army had been disbanded and previous military officials
had been banned from pursuing political leadership roles. Furthermore, the SCAP
had made efforts to benefit the majority tenant farmers and reduce the power of
the rich landowners through land reformation. Then in 1947 the Allies proceeded
to introduce a new constitution to Japan’s leaders. One that downgraded the
emperor’s status, placed more power in the parliamentary system, promoted
greater rights and privileges for women, and renouncing Japans right to wage
war.

Phase 2,
which was referred to as the “reverse course”, focused mainly on the economic
rehabilitation of Japan. Policies adopted ranged from tax reforms to measures
aimed at controlling inflation.

During phase
3, specifically in September of 1951, 52 nations met in San Francisco to
discuss the treaty and ultimately 49 of them signed it. The treaty allowed the
US to maintain its bases in Okinawa amongst other places in Japan, and in
return Japan was promised a bilateral security pact. Through several more years
of hard work Japan’s economy took off making it one of the worlds largest,
ranking highly in both exporting and importing worldwide. Also, education rates
it japan skyrocketed, hence revitalizing the skills and talents of the
workforce, as well as improving the standards of living of all Japanese
citizens.

Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances synthesized from
testosterone or one of their derivatives, which have anabolic or androgenic
effects depending on the target tissue (Simao et al., 2015). Anabolic
androgenic steroids are clinically used for the treatment of chronic diseases
associated with the catabolic state of the patient as in conditions of AIDS,
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal or hepatic failure, cancer and in
cases of burns and postsurgical recovery (Karbalay-Doust & Noorafshan
2006; Kicman, 2008). They are also used as androgen replacement therapy
after menopause (Arlt, 2006).

    Because of anabolic
effects of these steroids, they became very popular among professional and
recreational athletes, even though they were banned in many organized sports (Nieschlag & Vorona, 2015; Piacentino
et al., 2015). These hormonal
drugs are most frequently used among weightlifters, bodybuilders and swimmers to
improve their physical performance, strength and muscle mass.  However, these individuals may take doses up
to 100 times higher than the therapeutic range, which leads to severe adverse
effects on many organs in different body systems (Sretenovic et al., 2016). The
abuse of these drugs is not only confined to bodybuilders or athletes, but also
among members of general populations especially adolescents (Matrisciano et
al., 2010).

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    Administration of AAS is
often associated with various dose-related side effects, the most common of
which are, masculinization in women and children, hypertension,
atherosclerosis, thrombosis, jaundice, liver cancer and tendon injury, as well
as psychiatric and behavioral disorders in both sexes (Maravelias et al.,
2005). Infertility and gynecomastia in men as well as liver problems,
impotence and hypertrophy of the clitoris in women were also detected (Bahrke & Yesalis, 2004).

    Among a large number of
flourishing AAS drugs, the 19-nor-testosterone derivative, nandrolone decanoate
(ND) which is one of the most commonly abused AAS compound all over the world (Eklof
 et al., 2003). Thus, ND is the drug
used in the experimental animal studies upon which this thesis is based. Thus,
this work was designed to study the histological and immunohistochemical
changes occurring in the rat liver due to nandrolone decanoate administration.

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