Abstract formats, have been accepted in the commercial


The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of Crew
Resource Management (CRM) in commercial aviation and how the program has
changed in both training and application. 
CRM has undergone many changes from its origins on a National
Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) program in 1979, through
introduction of the CRM Threat & Error Management (TEM) concept in 2001.  The application of the CRM fundamentals has
had a very positive impact on the aviation industry with dramatic reductions in
total aircraft accidents.  CRM and the
training programs, in a variety of formats, have been accepted in the
commercial aviation around the world.  However,
due to major differences in behavior, acceptance and cultures, there are still
limitations with CRM.  The training
procedures may be universal, but human behavior in different cultures varies
greatly.  Despite these differences, the
goal of CRM will continue to focus on interpersonal communication, leadership,
and decision-making in the cockpit.  The
training for CRM has become a mandatory practice in a majority of the aviation
environments around the world.  CRM has
been seen as so successful many of the training fundamentals have been applied
to other high-risk industries including hospitals, police work and firefighting.

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