3.4. integral element to its integrity and regards

3.4.
The Indian Perspectives over Kashmir

Kashmir, where the struggle of power up to
threat of nuclear weapons within the tension created by the competitive
environment of two rival countries challenging to get their side of the argument
adopted in the region, has become a symbol of the ongoing confrontation between
India and Pakistan. India’s presence in Kashmir is predicated on the fact that
it regards it as an essential component so as to manage to maintain its secular
and democratic structure. India does not want to lose control over the region
where 20% Hindu live, nor does it intend to allow its counterpart to gain an
advantageous position by exerting any Pakistani dominance. Simply, India
considers Kashmir as an integral element to its integrity and regards the issue
resolved through this way while accusing Pakistan of supporting separatists in
the region at issue. Accordingly, it is compelling for Indian argument to get acknowledged
by the United States that the separatists in Kashmir are involved in terrorist
activity and also to present Pakistan as a state that fosters and nurtures terrorism
in the international system in order to
to
justify the India’s actions there.1

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In parallel with such an attempt, India
aims to have the terrorist events in Kashmir perceived in its unfavor in the
international arena. Furhermore, by putting military power at the forefront, it
rejects any international mediation offer related to Kashmir to prevent the the
issue from gaining an international character in talks with Pakistan.
Interfering with any international intervention, it manipulates Kashmir dispute
to exert pressure on Pakistan through the exposure of the issue as a matter of
its own national security while this uncompromising attitude reduces Pakistan’s
maneuvering area and leaves it desperate in the face of Indian demands. As India
hasnot managed to fully legitimize its sovereignty over Kashmir, the war in the
region is still ongoing.2
Similarly, the hard measures taken by India as well as alleged support to sepearatist
groups by Pakistan make the case even more difficult to resolve. The proposal
by the UN to make public referendums in the region is constantly rejected by
India inasmuch as India is a country with a large number of ethnic groups and there
should absolutely be no concession to the demands for independence in order to
protect the integrity of the country.

 India denies the two-nations theory put
forward by Pakistan and asserts that Kashmir is an integral part of India
despite the Muslim majority. Likewise, the unofficial views and allegations of
India argue Pakistan has been fueling hatred and black propaganda against India
on radio and television programs. While India displays an authoritarian regime
in order to exercise authority in Kashmir, the people of Kashmir offer resistance
to gain freedom. In particolar, the sovereignty over Kashmir is of paramount
importance for India to demonstrate to the world that India is a powerful state,
which is capable of fighting against violence, and has succeeded in it. The
control of Kashmir, on the other hand, is like a symbol of indivisible
territorial integrity and being a nation state for India.3
However, this control of the region is accompanied by a definition that
Kashmir’s claims are a threat to India’s integrity. In this direction, the
enemy that India presents to the world public is the Muslims in Kashmir.

Behind
all of these initiatives lies the Indian effort to draw attention to the facts
that India is a victim of the terrorism in Kashmir, which originates from
Pakistan and that both countries share the same destiny as terrorism has
victimized the US as well. Such an American acknowledgment that the separatists
in Kashmir are in terrorist activities will legitimize every action of India
and leave Pakistan in a tight spot.4 Thus,
blocking any international intervention, india wields the Kashmir issue as a
means of oppression on Pakistan while it also strives to reflect the dispute to
the world as its own national security problem. Accordingly, India’s
uncompromising attitude towards Kashmir is aimed to enervate Pakistan’s
maneuvering area and ultimately leave it desperate in defiance of Indian
demands. The controversy shows no signs of abiding as a result of India’s lack
of legitimization over Kashmir and in addition to the claims of Pakistan’s
support for separatist groups, drastic Indian measures in the region make the
solution to the problem far more complicated to handle. As such, on grounds of
the fact India is a country with a large number of ethnic groups, to preserve
the integrity of the country, no compromise for such independence demands is
allowed to be made. Likewise, the mutual insecurity between India and Pakistan
forces the Indian party to see the problem too vital for the Indian interests
to make any mutual concessions. Moreover, how the concessions to be given may
reflect in the internal public opinion is another dilemma for India.

Specifically,
Indian perspectives of Kashmir on the axes of strategy, national identity and domination
show close association with those of Pakistan, which is therefore to be
expounded under following captions n detail.

3.4.1. The Gravity of Kashmir for
Indian Domination over the Region,

Indian
attempts to enjoy sovereignty accompanied with the national identity and strategic
weight of Kashmir lays the solid ground for India to gain absolute domination
over the disputed region. Such claims of authority goes back to the Instrument
of Accession, which vested India with the power to exercise sovereignty and
allowed Kashmir to attain accession to India.5
In the course of time,  the state
building processes of India in Kashmir availed to attach the disputed land to
the state of India with the advantage of gaining much better political
influence on the rulers of Kashmir compared to its rivaling party. Long before
the partition of two newborn states, it was already obvious to witness the
signs of Kashmiri rapprochement in favor of India because the ruling Maharaja
had established closer ties wit Indians tan those of Pakistan. As
anticipated,  India competently exploited
the conditions of the time and managed to secure Kashmir through the accession
devised in unfavor of its rival. 

In fact, the
standstill agreement between Maharaja and Pakistan in 1947 was meant to buy
time to turn the conditions for his favor and obscure the plot agreed to be
followed with Indian side.6
According to the agreement, though the governmental processes for the provision
of support and commumication based services were to be assumed by Pakistan, Indian
side seemed to bear little interests in the standtill. Yet, the following
movements of India in Kashmir proved unlike as exposed Indian actions displayed
India was of bare intentions to secure its stance in case of further strifes to
develop between India and Pakistan.

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