Motivation is what keeps one going it gives a reason to get out of bed every morning and therefore is crucial for every action we take. Without motivation, one would just wander around not knowing what the sense of their doings is. Motivation can be defined as the process that is responsible for an individual´s passion, direction and determination of effort towards achieving a goal (Robbins, Judge 1988). As motivation is what drives us obviously there is always a motivation behind the decision to go travel. However, the question of why we travel and try to go out of the known is not always easy to answer.
2.1.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Many tourism researchers base their travel motivation studies on Maslow’s hierarchy ofneeds. According to this motivation model, all human needs can be organized in a hierarchy of five needs. The Hierarchy begins with the physiological needs like hunger, thirst and sex. It continues upwards with the needs of safety, belongingness and love, esteem and self-actualization. (Fig. 1)
A human always tries to satisfy the basic needs first and then moving forward to higher level needs. Meaning a human can travel to fulfil the needs, it could be because of work which indirectly would satisfy the physiological need as money is needed in order to provide food and a safe place to stay. Moreover, travel can also fulfil the need for love and belongingness if a family member or a loved one is visited for example. A study that analysed 400 cases of travel suggests that humans travel for reasons of self-actualization (35%) and love and belongingness (33%) followed by the physiological needs (27%)
In addition to those five needs, Maslow also discusses two additional needs: the need for aesthetic and the need to know and understand. However, it can be argued that for tourism and travel those needs play a bigger role than other needs in the hierarchical model. People travel to places to learn something new, broaden their horizon with culture and history and to experience the beauty of nature and culture.
Out of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs two travel motivation concepts have emerged: The Travel Career Ladder (TCL) and Travel Career Patterns (TCP) (Hsu and Huang 2008).
2.1.2 Travel Career Ladder and Travel Career Patterns
According to the Travel Career Ladder traveller’s needs can once again be organized in a hierarchy, however, here relaxation counts as the lowest need followed by safety/security needs, relationship needs, self-esteem and development needs in that order and finally as the highest level the fulfilment need (Fig. 2)
The core idea of this model is that the travel motivation is able to change with the travel experience. Meaning as travellers get more experienced they normally seek the satisfaction of higher level needs. The travellers can move forward in the ladder, whereas some travellers remain at one level depending on limiting factors such as health and financial considerations (Lee and Pearce 2005). However, there is not much evidence that travellers show an increased intellectual motivation for travelling when travelling more. (Ryan 1998)
The travel career pattern is an adjusted version of the travel career ladder. The travel career pattern consists of 14 motivation factors which are slightly different in importance. Those factors can be defined as: (1) novelty, (2) escape/relax, (3) self-actualization, (4) nature, (5) kinship, (6) Self-enhancement, (7) romance, (8) kinship-belonging, (9) autonomy, (10) self-development, (11) nostalgia, (12) stimulation, (13) isolation and (14) recognition. Out of these motivational factors, Lee and Pearce (2003) developed a model consisting of three layers. The core layer consists of the most important common motives like novelty and escapes/relax. The core layer is surrounded by moderately important travel motives which go from inner-oriented motives like self-actualization to externally oriented motives like nature. The outer layer consists of less important travel motives like nostalgia and isolation (Lee and Pearce 2005).
2.1.3 Push/Pull Factors
A universal travel motivation model is still lacking, however, the push/pull model is accepted by many researchers. Push factors thereby are defined as internal motives that cause travellers to seek activities to reduce their needs, while pull factors are generated by the destination and the knowledge travellers hold about the destination. (Gnoth 1997) Most push factors are of intrinsic nature including factors like the desire to escape, rest and relaxation, prestige and health and fitness. Push factors are of extrinsic nature emerging due to the attractiveness of a destination. (Uysal and Jurowski 1994) Push factors initiating the desire to travel whereas pull factors are considered to be decisive in destination choice.
2.2 Domestic Travel
How can one explore other countries without even knowing their home country? Travelling within one’s country of residence can provide great adventures and possibilities. Travelling within a country can be easily worked around a busy schedule, meaning the weekends can be used to explore. It´s most likely cheaper than travelling internationally and it can be connected to visit family and friends. And lastly, it is also way eco-friendlier than travelling internationally or long-distances. (Higgins 2017) Domestic travel can be defined as the act of travelling outside the normal domicile to certain other areas within the boundaries of the same country. Since no borders of any other country are crossed the domestic travel, also called internal travel is the easiest way of travelling. There are no barriers to currency exchange, language, passport, visa, health documents and more. None of this has to be considered when travelling within the own country of residence.
Domestic travel is said to be several times more than international travel in many developed countries of the western world.
In Switzerland, the domestic travel is dominated by winter sports or mountain holidays, many taken between January to March (Boniface, Cooper and Cooper 2016).
According to the Swiss Federal Office for statistics, Swiss residents have taken a total of 76´920 day trips whereas 68´909 day trips took place within Switzerland in 2016, the main reasons for those day trips were Holiday and relaxation, visits of relatives or friends and business trips. (Tab. 1)
Table 1: Swiss Day Trips in 2015 and 2016 (Office federal de la Statistique 2017)
All Day Trips
From that in Switzerland
Main reason for Travel
Visits to relatives or friends
However, for domestic travel to benefit the local economy a good infrastructure is needed and crucial in order to make the places accessible for people travelling by car, public transport or others. It is crucial that domestic travellers can reach their end destination easily and without any complications. This has also led to the fact that transport systems have developed rapidly in countries with a higher number of domestic travellers. (Bhatia 2006)
2.3 Lucerne´s transport accessibility
As expected the private car dominates domestic travel transportation. However, due to Switzerland’s topography and relief building transportation networks often demands major engineering work. This has been mastered with the St. Gotthard Pass for example or the roads over the Alpine passes. This brings many parts of Switzerland in the reach of day visitors within the country. The Swiss Federal Railways and the private railway companies operate 5´200 kilometres of track around the country making every part relatively easy accessible as those operate throughout the year. (Boniface, Cooper and Cooper 2016)
Lucerne can best be reached by car or train. By train, it is only one to three hours away from the major cities in Switzerland being, Zurich, Basel, Bern, Lugano and Geneva making Lucerne worth a day trip not only for tourists but also for Swiss citizens. (sbb.ch 2018)
2.4 Lucerne´s attractions
Lucerne is more than just another Swiss city. In 2016, it has been voted to the second favourite city in Europe, just behind Florence, Italy. But what is it that makes Lucerne so special and makes travellers come back again and again?
One can start with the outdoor activities Lucerne has to offer. This goes from a boat ride across the lake to going up one of the famous mountains, Mt. Rigi and Mt. Pilatus etc., surrounding Lucerne. When back in Lucerne one main attraction is obviously the famous Kappelbrücke, a wooden bridge that crosses the river Reuss. The triangular paintings inside the bridge depict moments from Lucerne´s history. The Lion Monument is worth a visit as well showing a lion carved into a stone wall.
As Switzerland is famous for its chocolate and cheese obviously Lucerne has to offer some of that too. On Tuesdays and Saturdays, Lucerne offers a weekly market where locals go to stock up on fresh groceries like cheese, eggs and vegetables. In the evening, the Rathaus Brauerei can be visited to let the day end with one of their homemade beers. (Lilit 2016)
2.5 Swiss peoples free time activities
The Swiss Federal Office of statistics has ranked the most popular free time’s activities of the Swiss residents in the year 2014. The most popular free time activity of the Swiss can be found at the top whereas the less popular free time activity is found lower on the list.
1. Hiking, picnicking, excursions
2. Meet friends or acquaintances outside home
3. Sport, exercise and fitness
4. Cook special dishes
5. Traditional card or board games
6. Village, district or club festivals
7. Do It Yourself work, handicrafts, crafting
8. Big traditional festivals (1st of August, Fasnacht etc.)
9. Trips to the zoo
10. Video and computer games
11. Sporting events (Football etc.)
12. Cabaret, circus, light and sound shows
13. Botanical garden
14. Big city festivals (Street Parade)
15. Discos, dancing and nightclubs
Many of these free time activities are performed once or more than that every week by most of the Swiss. Sport, exercise and fitness (65% once or more than once a week) is the most practices free time activity by the Swiss followed by hiking, picnicking and excursions (40% once or more than once a week) (Office federal de la Statistique 2017)
A lot of these free time activities can be found in Lucerne with the proximity Mt. Pilatus and Mt. Rigi hiking and outside excursions are easily done and highly appreciated. To meet friends and acquaintances Lucerne offers various restaurants and bars which are valued by the day trippers coming to Lucerne.