1. feet are also looking forward. The

the anatomical position and explain
its importance.   (Chapter 1)                           1 point


The anatomical position is the position of
the body we are visualizing/looking at when we are discussing the body in
general: how it moves, its posture, as well as when we are comparing one body
part to another.  In the anatomical
position, the body is standing straight with the arms at its sides.  The palms are facing up (forward).  The head and the feet are also looking
forward.  The anatomical position is
important because it gives directional terms used to describe body parts and
regions meaning.  The directional terms
used when describing the location of body parts are: superior and inferior,
anterior and posterior, medial and lateral, proximal and distal, and
superficial and deep.

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What is an atom? 
List and define the 3 types of subatomic particles.  (Chapter 3)            1 point


Atoms are the unit of what all matter is
made up of.  Atoms are very small and can
be broken down into subatomic particles. 
It is said that some of these exist in a “cloud” that surround a nucleus,
which is a central core.  Protons,
neutrons, and electrons are subatomic particles.  Protons are positively charged particles.  Neutrons are neutrally charged particles.  Protons are negatively charged particles. 


Define metabolism.  Differentiate between anabolism and
catabolism.  (Chapter 3)        1 point


Metabolism is the word that describes
chemical reactions happening in body cells. 
Anabolism is the term used to describe chemical reactions that form
large biomolecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids) from simpler
molecules.  Catabolism is the term used
to describe chemical reactions that break down large compounds into simpler
compounds.  Anabolic chemical reactions require
energy.  Catabolic chemical reactions release
energy from compounds.


List and briefly describe the 3 main structural
components of a cell.    (chapter 5)           1 point


The three main structural components of a
cell are the plasma membrane, cytoplasm (with organelles included), and the
nucleus.  The plasma membrane can serve
many functions such as being a marker that identifies cells of everyone, can be
used as a transport mechanism, and as a receptor molecule for some hormones as
well as other molecules.  It is the “boundary”
of a cell.  Cytoplasm is a gel-like substance
made of organelles and molecules that are suspended in a watery-filled fluid
substance called intracellular fluid.  The
nucleus is typically in the middle of every cell.  It contains DNA (genetic code).  The nucleus plays a great role in how other
cells function, such as growth, metabolism, and cell transport.  (pg. 78)


List the organelles found in cells.  Briefly describe any 2.   (Chapter 5)                                1 point


There are many organelles found in cells.  Their cell structure is either membranous
(they have cell membranes) or nonmembranous (they do not have cell membranes).  Organelles that are membranous are plasma
membranes, endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER or smooth ER), Golgi apparatus,
vesicles, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, and nucleus.  Organelles that are nonmembranous are
ribosomes, proteasomes, cytoskeleton, centrosome, microvilli, cilia, flagella,
and nucleolus. 


Thousands of ribosomes–a nonmemborous
organelle–are in every cell and a lot are attached to the rough endoplasmic
reticulum.  Many ribosomes lie free and dispersed
throughout the cytoplasm.  Ribosomes are
made of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and are the cell’s “protein factory”, meaning
they protein synthesis.  Peroxisomes (a
membranous organelle) get rid of harmful substances in a cell.  Peroxisomes contain enzymes and are a type of
vesicle often seen in liver cells as well as kidney cells.