1) a non-governmental organization that establish technical data

1)     
It is known that wet and
dry bulk cargoes are loaded in vessel’s special spaces. Please describe subject
spaces and identify the difference of CARGO HOLD and CARGO TANK. How dry bulk
cargoes are loaded and discharged on board the vessels

Bulk cargo
is commodity cargo that transferred in large quantities unpackaged and refers
to material with liquid or granular form . 
Cargo hold and cargo tank are the areas when the cargo loaded on the
vessel depending the type of cargo. Cargo tank 
we name in tankers the space that enter the cargo  and cargo hold is named in the cargo ships
the pallet, the space that enter the cargo. In fact we can say that is the same
function for different types of vessels and different type of cargo. During
loading and discharging some vessels using their own systems (cranes) while
some other vessels depend on port facilities

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2)     
Please describe what IACS
is and his role in shipping industry. Does  IMO  have any relation  wit  IACS?

International association of classification societies is a
non-governmental   organization that
establish technical data and requirements concerning environment protection and
safety maritime and make sure that all vessels 
construction complied with requirements. Most important IACS activities
are the following

1)     
Ship classification
services  which  each classification is mandatory and can
affects shipbuilding, maintenance and repair.

2)     
Ensuring high standards. In
order to achieve that IACS introduced the Quality System Certification Scheme
that include management systems regarding ship classification

3)     
Publications.
IACS has publications provided
guidelines to the member  suchs as the
Green book which incluse resolutions and recommendations and the Blue book
which include the Green Book and previous revisions and historical data .

With its
extensive knowledge of marine industry and fleet IACS holds a consultative
status with IMO and often participate in the capacity of an observer and as an
adviser to the IMO.

 

3)Describe the types of Surveys carried out by Classification societies
during vessel’s new building construction

 

During a new building  construction
 classification societies view carefully
the drawing, design plans and several document of the vessel in order to verify
compliance with all regulations and applicable rules .While vessel is under
construction Classification societies participate in the construction with one
or more surveyors in order to check and verify that ship is constructed in
accordance with  the classification rules
and with the approved design plans .In addition a classification surveyor attendance
shipyards facilities that produce important components such as engines and
generator in order to check and confirm that everything manufactured with all
the applicable rules as well. Prior  the
delivery,  classification societies
surveyor participate also at the sea trials and other relating to the vessel
and the equipment trials in order b to verify  conformance  with all the specifications. In case of
satisfactory completion, class societies issue a certificate of classification

 

4)     
Please describe measure
controls from ship’s owner site during vessel’s operational life related to
vessel’s ship worthiness

Most of  the 
major charterers seeking well 
maintained vessels with good performance 
to hire. In order for the vessel to be in good condition and more
profitable, owners use the PMS (Planned Maintenance System)  which is a software system and allow to the
operators to carry out repairs and maintenance according to Classification
society and manufacturers in order to comply with the requirements .  A good planning and priorities will ensure
that every critical work will be scheduled on time . Planning process includes  3 level. The long -rang planning which cover a
period of  3  to 5 years , the medium range planning wich
cover a period from 1 month   to 1 year and the short -rang planning  wich 
cover a period from 1 day to 1 week .The purpose of PMS is to reduce the
maintenance cost and improve the quality of work by adopt the best procedures

 

5)Please advice
which parties/authorities/organizations are entitled to inspect the vessels
apart of Classification Societies, where their role should be described.

 

There are
several type of inspection that carried out from the nominaded inspectors apart
from Classification societies. Port State Control (PSC) have fully authority to
attend and inspect the vessels .Port State Control office which is a well
trained and authorized from PSC to carry out inspections board the vessel to
check if ship and equipment comply with MOU and relevant requirements .Officers
carry an identity  card issued by their
maritime authorities .Normally start checking documents of the vessel such  as 
cargo ship safety equipment, documents of Compliance and many more then
conducts a general inspection of the areas such as pump room ,engine room and
accommodation. If after the inspection everything comply with regulations will
issue the report to the master of the ship. Then the data of the report will be
recorder at MOU central computer  database

 

6) Please provide the definition of
“Distressed Cargo” where relevant example should be presented

Distressed
cargo” is cargo of ships that failed to reach their destination in time or
in the expected condition, resulting in its deterioration and possible abandonment.
The most common occurrence of this is when a commodity is purchased by a buyer,
not paid for, then drops in value significantly while in transit. This usually
means that breaking the contract and paying the fines for doing so is better
than taking a loss on the cargo they are having shipped to them . Another
reason is If a ship has experienced bad weather or other issues that have
caused them to have to leave a port outside of their normally scheduled time
frame, they may not be able to unload cargo. If this happens, they must unload
the cargo at their next port and the cargo becomes distressed. Also When either
the buyer or the seller has waited too long to execute the trade. This means
that the time frame has expired and the cargo has not been paid for (or payment
has been refused)

 

7)  Please advice types of vessel’s tonnage together with short description
of each type

 

There are different ways a vessels tonnage is measured regarding marine
industry such as displacement tonnage, standard displacement tonnage,
deadweight tonnage, lightweight tonnage, gross tonnage and  Net tonnage

Displacement tonnage is the total weight of the volume of the water a
ship displaces when it is shitting in the water.

Standard Displacement tonnage is almost the same as Displacement tonnage
and the different is that while we calculate 
the standard Displacement tonnage we must deduct the fuel or any water
carried onboard the ship.

Deadweight
tonnage is the weight in tons of all the fuel, dry provisions,supplies and the
cargo carried on board the ship

 

8) What is
the purpose of Load Line? Why is it necessary for ships to have Load
Lines?  What are the different types of Load Lines?

 

Load line is a special mark positioned amidships on
both size of the vessels hull  and
indicates the draft of the ship and the legal limit which a ship may be loaded
for specific geographical areas and seasons of the year. The purpose of the
load line is to ensure that a ship has sufficient freeboard and thus sufficient
reserve buoyancy. It should also ensure adequate stability and avoid excessive
stress of the ships hull as a result of overloading. Temperature will affect
the load line level because warm water being less dense than cold water.  Also salinity will affect load line because
fresh water is less dense than seawater. 
There are 2 types of load line markings, the standard load line marking
which applied for all types of vessels and the Timber load line marking which
is applicable for vessels carrying timber cargo. All seagoing cargo ships need
to carry loading certificate in order to ensure minimum freeboard , to avoid
vessels overloaded with cargo, for sufficient reserve buoyancy and to max
draught allowed on ship

 

9) Please
describe the meaning of draft, air draft and freeboard. What
is the interference related to cargo carrying capacity?

 

The draft of the ship or boat is the distance between the surface of the
water and the lowest point of the vessel with the thickness  of the hull included . The measurement should
be made as close to vertical as possible. Draft is important to use in order to
determine the minimum depth of water that vessel can safely navigate and avoid
contact between underwater objects . Variations by water level changed , heat
navigating shallow waters or variation by trim are some of the factors that
draft can be affected .

Air draft is  the distance
from  the surface of the water  to the highest  point of the vessel while vessel is fully
loaded. This is an important data that captain must inform to pilots, port
authorities, dock master and everyone else person in charge of a safe vessels passage
or ti operate in narrow areas. Many times air draft is subject to adjust with
the cargo and ballast ,enabling to obtain the most safely results but in must
be planned in advance in order to avoid waste time . This matter is critical
especially when the  vessels will  pass 
under bridges which is necessary a accurate calculation to avoid a
disaster.

Freeboard is the distance from waterline to the upper deck level,
measured at the lowest point of sheer . This measurement is important when
operating a vessel on certain waterways, and more particularly on large lakes
and  salt water where big size waves are
possible . If ships freeboard is too low a big wave could wash over the ships
deck and causing  damage or potentially
sink in progress .

 

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