1.10. preferred method 22. U3 O8 both are

1.10. uranium

         It is natural radioactive element. It
has M. P 1135 0C and B. P 41310C. It has three natural
isotopes (234U,235U,238U). These three have
the same chemical behave, but different in their radioactivity. The most common
one is 238U.The half live of each one is very long for example 238U
has half live time equals to 4.5 billion years. It decays to radium 226 then
radon 222 that become polonium 210 which finally become lead 21.

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           Uranium have two mixtures. Depleted
uranium with very little amount of 234&235 uranium that make its
radioactivity less than natural uranium. The other has more 234&235 uranium
that make its radio activity more than natural uranium and called enrichment
uranium. Enrichment uranium is the most used mixture. It used as fuel for
nuclear power plants. When depleted used as shield against ionizing radiation
mostly in military vehicles.

                Nuclear energy comes from the
atom nucleus through either nuclear fusion that occurs when atoms nuclei
combined together, like sun energy or nuclear fission that occurs when atoms
nuclei are split apart which used to generate electricity. About 11% of world
electricity comes from uranium reactors.

         Uranium present in air as very small
particles , about .76-5% of uranium that inhaled by person will enter the blood
stream. Some uranium compounds are settle for time in lung. Drinking water have
low level of uranium. However, rocks and soil may cause increase at uranium
level in water due to present of natural uranium in all rocks and soil. About
.1-6% of uranium will enter the blood stream from water.

      Soluble uranium is more cable to enter blood
stream than poor soluble ones. Uranium can stick into roots of crops such as
potatoes usually by phosphate fertilizer which represent a primary source of
uranium in diets. Uranium intake is about .9 to 1.5 µg/day. Skin absorb very small
amount of uranium. However, people work or live near facilities deal with
uranium will expose to higher level of uranium.

        Most of uranium leave our body in faces
and urine. Absorbed uranium present at high level in bones, liver and kidney.
Bones contain about 66% of absorbed uranium. It has a half live time equals to
70-200 days. However, uranium that absorbed in other body parts leave within
1-2 weeks.

         Inhalation or digesting of uranium may
lead to kidney damage. Respiratory track can also damage by inhalation of
uranium especially UF6.Both natural and depleted uranium aren’t
classifications as carcinogenicity. Its amount can detect in blood, urine hair
and body tissue. However, urine is the preferred method 22.

        U3 O8
both are oxide forms of uranium. It presents at
solid form and low soluble in water. The most stable natural
form of uranium is U3O8. At ambient temperature UO2
will convert to U3O8.UF6 is used during
enrichment process of uranium. It presents in 3 states of matter according to
temperature and pressure. It reacts with water or water vapor and form hydrogen
fluoride (HF). It doesn’t react with oxygen, nitrogen, CO2 or dry

        Uranium tetrafluoride UF4
is green and used as intermediate to convert UF6 to U3O8,UO2
or uranium metal. It is slightly soluble in water and when dissolve in
it. It will form different uranium compounds and HF 24.

Radioisotopes are providing information about anatomy and function of
some organs, and in radiotherapy as treatment of some illnesses such as;
cancer. It also used after harvest to kill pests and persists. They used to
produce high yield and both weather and disease resistant crops.it used in
different industries as lack detector, smoker detector and analysis of mineral
and fuel 25.



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