1.1. services are provided to the users by

General Introduction

Cloud computing means providing services over
the internet. ‘Cloud’ is used as a metaphor for the term ‘the internet’. So, it
means anything that are available online and in the online world.  Its services includes servers, database,
software, analytics, databases, etc. Generally, these services are provided to
the users by the companies and the companies which provides these sorts of services
are called cloud providers. And these cloud providers charge users for these
services based on the uses. Anything that we are doing on the internet like
listening to music, watching movies, playing games, downloading files,
uploading documents, we are most likely to be using the cloud and cloud
providers are working behind the scenes to make all these happen and with these
services it has made the people connected from one part to the other part
because content stored in a cloud of one person can be accessed by other
persons in another part of the world. There are various web services that are
delivered from the cloud which are as Communication as a Service (CaaS),
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Monitoring as a Service (MaaS), Platform as
a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS). So, it has already connected
to us and has made our life much easier.  (Microsoft, 2017) (Rittinghouse.J & Ransome.J, 2017) (Kumar &
Goudar, 2012)

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Cloud computing has changed the field of IT
and for the development of cloud computing Amazon.com has played a very
significant role. It helped in modernizing its data center which increased its
internal efficiency improvements after the dot-com bubble burst in 2001. And
some sorts of revolution began which shifted the approach of computing
radically when it started providing its systems via Amazon web services for
third party users who were not expertise or had knowledge, who had full access
to the cloud where they can store the data permanently and can download of view
the data via internet through the devices like laptop, desktop, notebook,
mobiles, etc. (Rittinghouse.J & Ransome.J, 2017)


Current Scenario

 Nowadays, cloud computing is used in every
sector like educational institutes, medical fields, banking sector, industries,
etc. these sectors store the necessary data of the clients and other necessary
files in the cloud. It is in such practice because it is reliable and it
reduces the cost for these sectors of maintaining servers, manpower, software,
because that is done by the cloud providers. Thus, it sees no boundaries. Cloud
computing is also used by different social media like Pinterest, Instagram,
etc. Instagram has used cloud computing after it was unable to maintain server
due to a lot of traffic and after using cloud to store all of its data it has
managed to operate properly with over three million users. And same as
Instagram Pinterest has also been using cloud to store and analyze data. (Microsoft, 2017) (Smart Data
Collective, 2013)





2.    Background


Elaboration of Web
Services offered by cloud


There are few web
services provided by the cloud which are generally, Infrastructure as a service
(IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). (Rittinghouse.J & Ransome.J, 2017)

1: Cloud
computing services and their role in infrastructure, development, and
applications  (Pendse, 2017)

2.1.1.      IaaS

Infrastructure as a
Service is the way how cloud delivers its infrastructures as – storage,
servers, network and operating systems. The cloud providers hosts these
infrastructures virtually, which is highly beneficial for newly established
companies who lack capital to buy or invest these infrastructures. The IaaS
customers rent these services for their use and by providing these services
cloud providers charge for these services. Example of IaaS is Amazon’s EC2. (Pendse, 2017) (Rittinghouse.J & Ransome.J, 2017) (Kumar &
Goudar, 2012)

2.1.2.      PaaS

Platform as a Service
is a platform that allows user to develop and run the web application and cloud
services quickly and easily from the internet. It is mostly beneficial for the
developers who are working on a project where they have to interact with each
other. As IaaS consumers are concerned with the specific operating system where
they run their application but PaaS users are not concerned about what
operating system is being used, they are only concerned on web- based
application. The example of PaaS is Google AppEngine. (Pendse, 2017) (Rittinghouse.J & Ransome.J,
2017) (Kumar &
Goudar, 2012)

2.1.3.      SaaS

Software as a Service is the
software distribution model where it hosts the applications over the internet
and creates the hosting environment, and these applications can be accessed via
internet from web browsers, PDA, etc. Its examples are Google mail, Google
Docs, SalseForce.com, etc. (Kumar & Goudar, 2012) (Pendse, 2017)



Cloud computing
deployment models


Right Scale Survey Respondents Using Cloud (Pendse, 2017)


Public cloud

Cloud providers owns and operate the hardware,
software and other supporting infrastructure in the public cloud. They provide
computing services like, servers and storage over the internet to the general
public and large organizations. And the users access these services and manage
their account using web browsers. Example of public cloud are Microsoft Azure,
Google AppEngine, Sun Cloud, and IBM’s Blue-Cloud. (Rao, et al.,
2013) (Pendse, 2017) (Microsoft,

Private cloud

Private cloud computing resources are mostly used by a single business
or an organization. Some companies host their private cloud  and some companies pay the third party cloud
providers to host their private cloud. And this type of cloud is solely
accessible by the company itself which maintains privacy and security. The
services and infrastructure provides in this cloud is maintained on a private
network. The companies that provide private cloud are oracle, IBM, Microsoft,
cisco, etc. (Rao, et al., 2013) (Pendse, 2017) (Microsoft,


Hybrid cloud is the
combination of both public and private cloud. In this cloud data’s can be sent
between them which gives greater flexibility to the businesses.  (Rao, et al., 2013) (Pendse, 2017)



In Nepal, government
is using government cloud solely for government services, and it is hosted by
government integrated data center which is the only data center in Nepal. With
this use of cloud government does not have to maintain its servers and it
provides scalability. Government cloud is being used during the time of
publication of SLC results at this time portals like moe.gov.np and soce.gov.np
gets a lot of traffic but other times it gets a few traffic only. Thus by using
government cloud the server memory can increased at any time required. Hence,
by reducing the risk of system downtime. 
 (TechSansar, 2016)